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Table 4 Epidural analgesia provision by maternal birthplace, stratified by parity

From: The provision of epidural analgesia during labor according to maternal birthplace: a Norwegian register study

Spontaneous vaginal deliveryPrimiparous women
N 248661
Multiparous women**
N 427035
 Global Burden of DiseaseCrude OR95% CIP-valueAdjusted OR*95% CIP-valueCrude OR95% CIP-valueAdjusted OR*95% CIP-value
 NorwayRef. Ref. Ref. Ref. 
 High-income1.111.071.15< 0.0011.091.051.13< 0.0011.101.061.14< 0.0011.041.001.080.028
 Europe/Central Asia1.161.121.20< 0.0011.071.031.01< 0.0010.960.921.000.0470.830.800.87< 0.001
 Sub-Saharan Africa0.850.800.90< 0.0010.740.690.79< 0.0010.480.450.51< 0.0010.420.390.44< 0.001
 North Africa/Middle East1.081.021.130.0041.010.961.060.7720.750.710.78< 0.0010.680.650.72< 0.001
 South Asia1.020.941.100.6241.010.921.090.9630.820.760.87< 0.0010.720.670.78< 0.001
 East Asia/Pacific0.750.710.79< 0.0010.740.700.78< 0.0010.590.560.63< 0.0010.530.490.56< 0.001
 Latin America/Caribbean1.931.752.13< 0.0011.831.662.02< 0.0011.741.581.91< 0.0011.441.311.59< 0.001
Instrumental vaginal deliveryPrimiparous women
N 62565
Multiparous women**
N 19249
Global Burden of DiseaseCrude OR95% CIP-valueAdjusted OR*95% CIP-valueCrude OR95% CIP-valueAdjusted OR*95% CIP-value
 NorwayRef. Ref. Ref. Ref. 
 High-income1.171.091.26< 0.0011.121.041.200.0031.251.101.410.0011.120.981.280.084
 Europe/Central Asia1.201.121.28< 0.0011.091.011.170.0251.090.961.240.1940.980.861.130.828
 Sub-Saharan Africa0.860.770.970.010.780.690.88< 0.0010.570.490.66< 0.0010.520.440.62< 0.001
 North Africa/Middle East1.271.151.40< 0.0011.181.061.300.0020.820.710.950.0090.820.700.970.018
  South Asia1.221.051.400.0081.140.981.320.0890.900.741.110.3410.760.610.950.016
East Asia/Pacific0.830.760.90< 0.0010.800.730.87< 0.0010.650.560.75< 0.0010.610.520.71< 0.001
 Latin America/Caribbean2.301.842.87< 0.0012.121.692.66< 0.0011.791.252.550.0011.581.092.280.016
Emergency cesarean deliveryPrimiparous women
N 50424
Multiparous women**
N 34562
Global Burden of DiseaseCrude OR95% CIP-valueAdjusted OR*95% CIP-valueCrude OR95% CIP-valueAdjusted OR*95% CIP-value
 NorwayRef. Ref. Ref. Ref. 
 High-income1.231.141.33< 0.0011.141.051.240.0021.221.101.36< 0.0011.070.951.200.254
 Europe/Central Asia1.191.101.29< 0.0011.030.941.130.5031.241.101.38< 0.0011.110.981.250.103
 Sub-Saharan Africa0.800.730.87< 0.0010.820.740.91< 0.0010.850.770.940.0010.800.710.90< 0.001
 North Africa/Middle East0.920.831.020.1090.950.851.070.4020.820.730.930.0010.810.710.920.002
 South Asia0.810.690.940.0050.900.761.070.2250.890.751.050.1580.920.771.110.375
 East Asia/Pacific1.101.011.200.0361.060.971.170.2151.131.021.260.0231.070.951.210.241
 Latin America/Caribbean1.731.472.05< 0.0011.681.402.01< 0.0011.381.111.730.0041.210.951.540.119
  1. *Adjusted for: age at delivery (< 20, 20–34, ≥35 years), marital status (married/cohabiting y/n), maternal education (lower, middle, higher, missing), birth weight, year of childbirth and size of obstetric department. **In multiparous women, also for parity (1, 2, 3, 4+ births) and previous cesarean delivery (y/n). GBD Global Burden of Disease; OR Odds ratio; CI Confidence interval