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Table 1 Characteristics of pregnant women by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). p-values from Fisher’s exact probability test

From: Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy affects complications and birth outcomes in women with and without asthma

  ETS 
CharacteristicCategoryNo (n = 1372)Yes (n = 231)p-value
Age (years)< 25 y473 (34.5%)85 (36.8%)0.296
25–29 y424 (30.9%)72 (31.2%) 
30–34 y268 (19.5%)46 (19.9%) 
35+ y207 (15.1%)28 (12.1%) 
Active smokingyes8 (0.6%)15 (6.5%)< 0.001
Residencecity942 (68.7%)148 (64.1%)0.171
village430 (31.3%)83 (35.9%) 
EthnicityFarsi209 (15.2%)29 (12.6%)0.551
Turk1143 (83.3%)198 (85.7%) 
other20 (1.5%)4 (1.7%) 
EducationElementary school279 (20.3%)67 (29.0%)< 0.001
High school795 (57.9%)141 (61.0%) 
College/university298 (21.7%)23 (10.0%) 
Body weightunderweight (BMI < 18.5)70 (5.1%)12 (5.2%)0.904
normal (BMI 18.5- < 25)1158 (84.4%)197 (85.3%) 
overweight (BMI > =25)144 (10.5%)22 (9.5%) 
Parity1553 (40.3%)95 (41.1%)0.486
2520 (37.9%)77 (33.3%) 
3237 (17.3%)46 (19.9%) 
4+62 (4.5%)13 (5.6%) 
Asthmayes26 (1.9%)8 (3.5%)0.137