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Table 3 Multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of both individual and community-level factors associated with Home Delivery in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016

From: Spatio-temporal distribution and associated factors of home delivery in Ethiopia. Further multilevel and spatial analysis of Ethiopian demographic and health surveys 2005–2016

Individual and community-level variables Models
Null model Model I Model II Model III
AOR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)
Mother’s age
 < 20 Years   1   1
 20–34 years   0.79 (0.59, 1.05)   0.90 (0.67, 1.20)
 35–49 Years   0.70 (0.49, 1.01)   0.91 (0.63, 1.31)
Household head
 Male   1   1
 Female   0.89 (0.72, 1.11)   0.89 (0.72, 1.11)
Marital status
 Not having a partner   1   1
 Had a partner   1.44 (0.71, 2.90)   1.10 (0.54, 2.25)
Religion
 Orthodox   1   1
 Muslim   1.52 (1.19, 1.95)   0.93 (0.68, 1.25)
 Protestant   2.26 (1.68, 3.02)   1.62 (1.15, 2.28) *
 Others   2.21 (1.15, 4.24)   1.48 (0.77, 2.84)
Women education
 Unable to read and write   1   1
 Primary education   0.69 (0.57, 0.83)   0.75 (0.62, 0.90) ***
 Secondary education   0.39 (0.27, 0.56)   0.50 (0.34, 0.72) ***
 Higher education   0.25 (0.13,0.47)   0.34 (0.18, 0.66) ***
Husband education
 Unable to read and write   1   1
 Primary education   0.74 (0.61, 0.89)   0.83 (0.69,0.99) *
 Secondary education   0.44 (0.53, 0.59)   0.53 (0.39, 0.70) ***
Higher education   0.48 (0.33, 0.69)   0.56 (0.38, 0.81) ***
Women occupation
 Not working   1   1
 Working   1.31 (0.72, 2.40)   1.47 (0.80, 2.69)
Husband occupation
 Not working   1   1
 Working   0.78 (0.42, 1.42)   0.69 (0.38, 1.26)
Distance to any health facility
 Big problem   1   1
 Not a big problem   0.64 (0.54, 0.75)   0.79 (0.66, 0.94) **
Media exposure
 No media exposure   1   1
 Has media exposure   0.80 (0.67, 0.59)   0.91 (0.75, 1.11)
Had mobile
 No   1   1
 Yes   0.48 (0.38, 0.59)   0.60 (0.48, 0.76) ***
Insurance
 Not insured   1   1
 Insured   0.75 (0.32, 1.04)   0.9 (0.88, 1.08)
Had ANC
 No   1   1
 Yes   0.14 (0.12, 0.17)   0.18 (0.14, 0.22) ***
Birth order
 1   1   1
 2–4   1.76 (1.34, 2.30)   1.78 (1.36, 2.34) ***
> = 5   1.81 (1.24, 2.67)   1.87 (1.27, 2.76) **
Parity
  < = 2   1   1
 2–5   1.43 (1.14, 1.81)   1.37 (1.08, 1.74) **
  > 5+   1.34 (0.93, 1.95)   1.14 (0.78, 1.66)
Wealth index
 Poor   1   1
 Middle   0.81 (0.65, 1.02)   0.91 (0.73, 1.14)
Richer   0.48 (0.38, 0.59)   0.78 (0.61, 0.99) *
Residence
 Urban    1 1
 Rural    4.55 (3.19, 6.49) 2.92 (1.99, 4.29) ***
Region
 Addis Ababa     1
 Tigray    2.54 (1.24, 5.23) 1.46 (0.59, 3.60)
 Afar    17.24 (8.06, 6.89) 11.03 (4.29, 28.41) ***
 Amhara    8.23 (3.98, 17.00) 6.39 (2.60, 15.70) ***
 Oromia    7.07 (3.42, 14.62) 3.69 (1.50, 9.08) **
 Somali    10.66 (5.17, 1.98) 6.02 (2.41, 15.06) ***
 Benishangul    6.09 (2.90, 12.81) 3.94 (1.59, 9.82) **
 SNNPR    5.75 (2.80, 11.77) 3.04 (1.23, 7.47) *
 Gambla    6.22 (2.97, 13.02) 4.48 (1.77, 11.32) **
 Harari    3.59 (1.69, 7.64) 2.68 (1.04, 6.89) *
 Dire Dawa    2.73 (1.28, 5.84) 2.01 (0.77, 5.20)
Community ANC utilization
 Low    1 1
 High    0.32 (0.25, 0.41) 0.50 (0.39, 0.65) ***
Community Health facility distance
 Big problem    1 1
 Not a big problem    0.56 (0.43, 0.71) 0.69 (0.53, 0.90) **
Community media exposure
 Low    1 1
 High    0.85 (0.65, 1.09) 1.11 (0.85, 1.45)
Community poverty status
 High    1 1
 Low    0.58 (0.44, 0.75) 0.78 (0.58, 1.04)
Community-women education
 Low    1 1
 High    0.55 (0.43, 0.69) 0.78 (0.60, 0.99) *
Random effects
ICC% 67.32    
PCV% 1 82 86 89
MOR 12.17 4.75 3.20 2.54
Model comparison
Log-likelihood ratio − 4749.96 − 2606.26 − 4303.85 − 2450.68