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Table 5 Nested random effects models of association between Chamas participation and facility delivery controlling for prenatal care location (n = 307)a

From: Promoting positive maternal, newborn, and child health behaviors through a group-based health education and microfinance program: a prospective matched cohort study in western Kenya

Model variance estimatesRandom Effects Model
NullUnadjustedAdjusted
σu2 (SE)0.30 (0.24)0.51 (0.40)0.44 (0.39)
ρ (SE)0.08 (0.06)0.14 (0.09)0.12 (0.09)
p-value0.01< 0.010.01
−2 log likelihood330.23291.10267.40
CovariatesOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Chamasparticipation
 Did not participate in ChamasN/A
 ParticipatedN/A6.40 (3.44, 11.76)5.60 (2.91, 10.80) ††
Age (years)N/AN/A1.00 (0.92, 1.08)
Education level
 None-some primaryN/AN/A
 Completed primaryN/AN/A1.22 (0.54, 2.74)
 Some-completed secondaryN/AN/A3.28 (0.73, 14.75)
Employment
 Housewife (unemployed)N/AN/A
 Self-employed/Agricultural Worker/OtherN/AN/A1.47 (0.76, 2.85)
Marital Status
 Single/Separated/DivorcedN/AN/A
 MarriedN/AN/A1.35 (0.44, 4.15)
Parity
 PrimiparousN/AN/A
 MultiparousN/AN/A1.03 (0.15, 6.95)
Prior facility delivery
 NoN/AN/A
 YesN/AN/A4.16 (2.09, 8.27) ††
  1. aComplete cases only; n = 19 participants missing data on primary outcome or covariate
  2. Likelihood ratio test, ρ = 0
  3. ††Significant p < 0.001