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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression of factors associated with ANC 4+

From: Andersen’s model on determining the factors associated with antenatal care services in Nepal: an evidence-based analysis of Nepal demographic and health survey 2016

VariablesModel 1 OR (95%CI)Model 2 OR (95%CI)Model 3 OR (95%CI)Model 4 OR (95%CI)
Contextual variables
Predisposing variables
Provinces
   Province 1 (ref)    
   Province 20.35 (0.22–0.57)a0.35 (0.22–0.54)a0.44 (0.28–0.67)a0.48 (0.32–0.74)b
   Province 31.11 (0.68–1.8)1 (0.63–1.56)1.04 (0.66–1.64)1 (0.63–1.57)
   Province 40.97 (0.59–1.58)0.94 (91.06–0.84)0.83 (0.53–1.3)0.78 (0.5–1.22)
   Province 50.89 (0.56–1.4)0.83 (0.54–1.27)0.9 (0.59–1.37)0.93 (0.61–1.41)
   Province 60.35 (0.22–0.55)a0.44 (0.28–0.69)a0.46 (0.3–0.71)a0.46 (0.3–0.71)c
   Province 70.61 (0.38–0.98)c0.73 (0.47–1.14)0.92 (0.59–1.42)0.94 (0.61–1.46)
Ethnicity
   Brahmin/Chettri (ref)    
   Janjati0.48 (0.37–0.61)a0.52 (0.41–0.67)a0.66 (0.51–0.85)b0.67 (0.52–0.87)b
   Dalit0.48 (0.36–0.63)a0.57 (0.44–0.76)a0.82 (0.62–1.09)0.88 (0.66–1.18)
   Muslim0.34 (0.19–0.61)a0.28 (0.17–0.44)a0.49 (0.31–0.79)b0.57 (0.36–0.91)c
   Others0.53 (0.37–0.75)a0.49 (0.34–0.69)a0.67 (0.47–0.97)c0.74 (0.51–1.07)
Religion
   Hindu (ref)    
   Non--Hindu0.92 (0.65–1.29)   
Enabling factors
Wealth Index of family
  Poor (ref)    
  Middle 1.88 (1.5–2.36)a1.6 (1.27–2.03)a1.38 (1.08–1.76)
  Rich 2.87 (2.29–3.6)a1.97 (1.56–2.49)a1.53 (1.19–1.99)
Individual factors
Predisposing factors
Age  0.95 (0.94–0.96)a0.95 (0.93–0.96)a
Level of education
  No education (ref)    
  Primary school  1.64 (1.32–2.03)a1.38 (1.1–1.72)b
  Secondary school  2.78 (2.26–3.43)a1.87 (1.47–2.36)a
  Higher school  7.7 (5.37–11.04)a4.64 (3.05–7.05)a
Enabling factors
Level of partner’s education
  No education (ref)    
  Primary school   1.24 (0.95–1.61)
  Secondary school   1.51 (1.17–1.95)b
  Higher school   1.45 (1.01–2.06)c
Healthcare Decision maker
  Herself (ref)    
  Women and someone else   0.94 (0.74–1.2)
  Others   1.06 (0.86–1.32)
Exposure to Media
  Less than once a week (ref)    
  At least once a week   1.86 (0.94–3.66)b
Variance at individual: (PSU: residence (urban/rural): PSU)0.00060.0002< 0.00001< 0.00001
Variance at PSU: residence (urban/rural)0.750.620.530.51
Variance at residence (urban/rural)0.1230.050.0210.02
ICC0.210.170.1430.13
  1. Model 1: mutually adjusted for contextual predisposing variables
  2. Model 2: mutually adjusted for contextual predisposing and enabling variables
  3. Model 3: mutually adjusted for contextual predisposing and enabling variables, and individual predisposing variables
  4. Model 4: mutually adjusted for contextual predisposing and enabling variables, and individual predisposing and enabling variables
  5. Ref: Reference, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, PSU Primary sampling unit, ICC Intra class correlation coefficient
  6. cP ≤ 0.05; bP ≤ 0.01; aP ≤ 0.001