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Table 1 Respondent’s characteristics divided into environmental, predisposing and enabling factors

From: Andersen’s model on determining the factors associated with antenatal care services in Nepal: an evidence-based analysis of Nepal demographic and health survey 2016

VariableTotalNo ANC (%)1–3 times ANC (%)4+ ANC (%)p-value
Environmental Factor
Province
  Province 157526 (4.5)103 (17.9)446 (77.6)<  0.001
  Province 275937 (4.90)302 (39.8)420 (55.3) 
  Province 343428 (6.5)70 (16.1)336 (77.4) 
  Province 443629 (6.7)74 (17)333 (76.4) 
  Province 565132 (4.90137 (21)482 (74) 
  Province 660274 (12.3)170 (28.2)358 (59.5) 
  Province 754926 (4.7)103 (18.8)420 (76.5) 
Residence
  Urban2338112 (4.8)465 (19.9)1761 (75.3)<  0.001
  Rural1668140 (8.4)494 (29.6)1034 (62) 
Predisposing Factor
Age years
  15–1934410 (2.9)79 (23)255 (74.1)<  0.001
  20–292657130 (4.9)624 (23.5)1903 (71.6) 
  30–491005112 (11.1)256 (25.5)637 (63.4) 
Ethnicity
  Brahmin/Chettri136176 (5.6)241 (17.7)1044 (76.7)<  0.001
  Janjati126692 (7.3)265 (20.9)909 (71.8) 
  Dalit58442 (7.2)166 (28.4)376 (64.4) 
  Muslim2297 (3.1)101 (44.1)121 (52.8) 
  Others56635 (6.2)186 (32.9)345 (61) 
Religion
  Hindu3487225 (6.5)796 (22.8)2466 (70.7)<  0.001
  Non-Hindu51927 (5.25)163 (31.4)329 (63.4) 
Level of education
  No education1231153 (12.4)452 (36.7)626 (50.90)<  0.001
  Primary76354 (7.1)215 (28.2)494 (64.7) 
  Secondary139640 (2.9)249 (17.8)1107 (79.3) 
  Higher6165 (0.8)43 (7)568 (92.2) 
Respondent’s Occupation
  Didn’t work144195 (6.6)347 (24.1)999 (69.3)0.217
  Skilled worker46636 (7.7)94 (20.2)336 (72.1) 
  Unskilled worker1149 (7.9)32 (28.1)73 (64) 
  Agriculture1985112 (5.6)486 (24.5)1387 (69.9) 
Enabling Factor
Wealth Index of family
  Poor1879200 (10.6)520 (27.7)1159 (61.7)<  0.001
  Middle82222 (2.7)225 (27.4)575 (70) 
  Rich130530 (2.3)214 (16.4)1061 (18.3) 
Provincial GDP per capita ($) (USD)
   < 718 (national average) level)2561169 (6.6)712 (27.8)1680 (65.5)<  0.001
  718–1000101155 (5.4)177 (17.5)779 (77.1) 
   > 100043428 (6.5)70 (16.1)336 (77.4) 
Partner’s Education Status (n = 3130)
  No education50465 (12.9)196 (38.9)243 (48.2)<  0.001
  Primary84081 (9.6)252 (30)507 (60.4) 
  Secondary186780 (40.3)397 (21.3)1390 (74.5) 
  Higher262617 (2.3)105 (13.9)632 (83.8) 
Sex of household head
  Male2746173 (6.3)680 (24.8)1893 (68.9)0.187
  Female118179 (6.3)279 (22.1)902 (71.6) 
Healthcare Decision maker
   Herself84859 (7)166 (19.6)623 (73.5)0.003
  Women and someone else114958 (5)274 (23.8)817 (71.1) 
  Others1973126 (6.4)511 (25.9)1336 (67.7) 
Exposure to Newspaper
  Not at all3033237 (7.8)868 (28.6)1928 (63.6)<  0.001
  Less than once a week79114 (1.8)81 (10.2)696 (88) 
  At least once a week1821 (0.5)10 (5.5)171 (94) 
Exposure to Radio
  Not at all1696135 (8)540 (31.8)1021 (60.2)<  0.001
  Less than once a week127167 (5.3)242 (19)962 (75.7) 
  At least once a week103950 (4.8)177 (17)812 (78.2) 
Exposure to Television
  Not at all1519168 (11.1)501 (33)850 (56)<  0.001
  Less than once a week89343 (4.8)217 (24.3)633 (70.9) 
  At least once a week159441 (2.6)241 (15.1)1312 (82.3)