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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the study and control group (N = 1224)

From: Maternal and neonatal outcome of births planned in alongside midwifery units: a cohort study from a tertiary center in Germany

 Study group
(n = 612)
Control group
(n = 612)
p value
Age (years), mean (SD)32.9 (4.4)32.1 (5.1)0.003
BMI (kg/m2) ≥ 25, n (%)421 (68.8)196 (32.0)< 0.001
Mode of birth, n (%)  0.101
Spontaneous517 (84.5)502 (82.0) 
Instrumental vaginal38 (6.2)58 (9.5) 
Cesarean57 (9.3)52 (8.5) 
Epidural anesthesia, n (%)117 (19.1)252 (41.2)< 0.001
Duration, second stage of labora (min), mean (SD)47.4 (54.1)55.6 (59.5)0.002b
Episiotomya, n (%)26 (4.7)48 (8.6)0.066
Obstetric injurya, n (%)  0.007
First degree perineal laceration,
labia laceration
149 (26.8)119 (21.2) 
Second degree perineal laceration,
vaginal or clitoral laceration
191 (34.4)260 (46.4) 
Third or fourth degree perineal
laceration, cervical laceration
13 (2.3)5 (0.9) 
None202 (36.4)176 (31.4) 
Postpartum hemorrhage, n (%)43 (7.0)55 (9.0)0.246
Birthweight (gram), mean (SD)3561.0 (427.3)3466.3 (422.5)< 0.001
5-min APGAR score < 7, n (%)3 (0.5)2 (0.3)1.0
Umbilical cord arterial pH < 7.10, n (%)8 (1.3)16 (2.6)0.153
Missing12 (2.0)3 (0.5) 
Transfer to specialist neonatal care, n (%)5 (0.8)9 (1.5)0.386
  1. BMI Body mass index, SD Standard deviation
  2. aMissing for pairs with mode of birth = cesarean
  3. bWilcoxon signed-rank test