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Table 4 Linear regression model results showing differences due to WIC interactions for birth weight in grams and maternal characteristics before and during the Great Recession

From: The effect of women, infant, and children (WIC) services on birth weight before and during the 2007–2009 great recession in Washington state and Florida: a pooled cross-sectional time series analysis

 BaselineRecession
Coef. (95% CI)Coef. (95% CI)
Maternal WIC
 Not EnrolledReferentReferent
 Enrolled3..0 (− 34.3, 40.2)−17.5 (− 54.4, 19.3)
Maternal Race/Ethnicity
 White, Non-HispanicReferentReferent
 White, Hispanic− 77.2 (− 103.8, − 50.6)−76.5 (− 109.5, − 43.4)
 Black, Non-Hispanic−250.5 (− 276.1, − 224.9)−255.2 (− 285.1, − 225.3)
 Asian−186.6 (− 216.3, − 152.8)−208.1 (− 248.6, − 167.7)
 Other−38.6 (− 66.0, − 11.1)−32.2 (− 62.4, − 1.9)
WIC x Maternal Race/Ethnicitya
 White x WICReferentReferent
 Hispanic x WIC14.0 (− 18.0, 45.9)27.5 (−4.5, 59.6)
 Black x WIC53.5 (32.4, 74.5)58.03 (27.77, 88.30)
 Asian x WIC−3.4 (−43.6, 36.8)44.7 (−4.6, 94.0)
 Other x WIC37.2 (18.9, 55.5)38.5 (11.6, 65.3)
Maternal Age (in years)
 Age ≤ 14−246.9 (− 376.2, − 117.7)−54.4 (− 196.2, 87.4)
 Age 15–19− 28.9 (− 74.8, 17.1)−24.4 (− 77.8, 23.1)
 Age 20–2428.7 (5.7, 51.6)22.0 (−1.7, 45.6)
 Age 25–2932.1 (13.4, 50.7)37.5 (7.8, 67.2)
 Age 30–34ReferentReferent
 Age 35–39− 50.8 (− 86.8, − 14.8)− 45.5 (− 107.6, 16.6)
 Age 40 +− 169.7 (− 250.6, −  89.7)−118.2 (− 179.7, − 56.7)
WIC x Maternal Age (in years)
 Age ≤ 14 x WIC195.6 (81.1, 310.0)7.7 (− 159.0, 174.4)
 Age 15–19 x WIC34.7(− 13.6, 83.0)35.5 (−27.8, 98.8)
 Age 20–24 x WIC− 3.0 (− 31.9, 26.0)5.3 (− 24.1, 34.6)
 Age 25–29 x WIC− 9.8 (− 34.2, 14.6)−14.5 (− 57.8, 28.8)
 Age 30–34 x WICReferentReferent
 Age 35–39 x WIC− 34.8 (− 77.8, 8.2)3.1 (− 74.6, 80.7)
 Age 40 + x WIC33.4 (− 50.6, 117.4)− 10.9 (− 110.2, 88.3)
Maternal Education
 Less than H.S.− 78.0 (− 115.0, − 41.1)−86.6 (− 127.5, − 45.6)
 H.S. Diploma− 39.6 (− 58.3, − 20.8)− 55.8 (− 77.4, − 34.3)
 Some CollegeReferentReferent
 Not Assessed;
maternal age < 20 years
− 39.9 (− 67.8, − 12.1)−44.6 (− 75.7, − 13.6)
WIC x Maternal Education
 Less than H.S. x WIC22.9 (−11.3, 57.0)27.40 (− 12.76, 67.56)
 H.S. Diploma x WIC10.5 (−  7.7, 28.7)26.02(− 1.69, 53.74)
 Some College x WICReferentReferent
 Not Assessed;
maternal age < 20 years x WIC
− 1.0 (− 34.8, 32.9)16.9 (−20.3, 54.0)
Timing of Prenatal Care Entry
 During First TrimesterReferentReferent
 After First Trimester (including no prenatal care)− 30.0 (− 5.1, − 15.0)−39.6 (− 59.0, − 20.2)
WIC x Prenatal Care
 First Trimester x WICReferentReferent
 Late x WIC37.0 (21.3, 52.6)48.9 (26.5, 71.3)
  1. Abbreviations: CI: Confidence Interval; H.S.: high school; WIC: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
  2. a “x” represents interaction between variable (e.g. maternal race/ethnicity) and WIC