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Table 3 Results of multivariable logistic regressions of early initiation of breastfeeding

From: Facility readiness and counseling during antenatal care and the relationship with early breastfeeding in Haiti and Malawi

  Haiti Malawi
Other urban Rural Urban Rural
AOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI
Department: Haiti (ref = Artibonite)
 Ouest 0.7 0.2–2.8 0.8 0.5–1.5     
 Sud-Est 0.6 0.2–2.4 0.6 0.3–1.1     
 Nord 0.9 0.5–2.0 1.4 0.8–2.4     
 Nord-Est 0.9 0.4–2.1 0.7 0.4–1.2     
 Centre 0.8 0.4–1.9 0.4** 0.2–0.8     
 Sud 0.3* 0.1–0.9 1.0 0.5–1.9     
 Grand-Anse 2.7* 1.2–6.0 0.8 0.4–1.7     
 Nord-Ouest 1.2 0.5–2.9 1.1 0.6–2.1     
 Nippes 0.6 0.2–1.8 0.9 0.4–1.9     
Region: Malawi (ref = Northern)
 Central      0.2*** 0.1–0.3 0.7** 0.5–0.9
 Southern      0.4* 0.2–0.9 1.1 0.8–1.5
Wealth quintile
 Lowest and second 0.3* 0.1–0.8 ref   0.7 0.4–1.8 ref  
 Middle 0.7 0.4–1.3 0.7 0.5–1.1 1.7 0.6–4.8 1.0 0.8–1.3
 Fourth and highest ref   0.5* 0.3–0.9 ref   0.9 0.7–1.2
Education (ref = none or primary)
 Secondary or higher 0.8 0.5–1.3 1.1 0.8–1.5 1.0 0.6–1.8 1.0 0.8–1.4
Employment (ref = not employed)
 Employed 1.1 0.7–2.0 1.4** 1.1–1.8 1.0 0.5–1.7 0.9 0.7–1.1
Religion (ref = Christian)
 Other 1.4 0.7–2.9 0.8 0.5–1.3 1.3 0.9–2.0 0.9 0.8–1.1
Exposure to mass media (ref = less than once per week)
 At least once per week 1.1 0.6–1.8 1.0 0.7–1.4 2.0* 1.1–3.7 1.0 0.8–1.2
Currently married (ref = yes)
 No 1.4 0.7–2.8 0.7 0.5–1.1 0.7 0.4–1.3 1.2 1.0–1.6
Parity (ref = multiparous)
 Primiparous 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.8 0.6–1.1 0.6 0.3–1.0 0.8* 0.6–1.0
Size of baby at birth (ref = normal)
 Small or very small 0.7 0.4–1.2 1.0 0.8–1.4 0.9 0.4–2.0 0.8 0.6–1.1
 Large or very large 0.7 0.4–1.4 1.3 0.9–2.0 0.5* 0.3–0.9 0.9 0.7–1.0
Sex of child (ref = female)
 Male 0.9 0.5–1.4 1.0 0.8–1.2 1.7* 1.0–2.9 1.0 0.9–1.3
Number of ANC visits (ref = one to three)
 Four or more 0.5* 0.3–0.9 0.9 0.7–1.2 0.9 0.5–1.6 1.1 0.9–1.4
Both SBA and facility delivery (ref = yes)
 Neither or one or the other 0.8 0.4–1.7 1.0 0.6–1.5 0.3* 0.1–0.9 0.7** 0.5–0.9
PNC in the first hour (ref = no)
 Yes 1.9* 1.0–3.7 1.4 0.9–2.3 0.5** 0.3–0.8 1.2 1.0–1.5
Access to ANC breastfeeding counseling (ref = low)
 No data n/a   n/a   n/a   0.8 0.3–1.7
 Medium 1.3 0.8–2.2 0.7 0.4–1.0 0.7 0.4–1.2 1.1 0.8–1.4
 High 0.8 0.4–2.0 0.6 0.4–1.0 0.9 0.5–1.6 1.0 0.7–1.3
Access to trained providers (ref = low)
 No data n/a   n/a   n/a   1.3 0.7–2.4
 Medium 2.2** 1.3–3.5 1.1 0.8–1.5 1.0 0.5–1.8 1.0 0.8–1.3
 High 2.1 1.0–4.5 1.4 0.9–2.0 2.1* 1.1–4.0 1.0 0.8–1.3
Average facility breastfeeding counseling in ANC (ref = low)
 No data 1.7 0.9–3.3 0.6 0.2–2.0 0.3** 0.2–0.7 0.9 0.7–1.2
 High 0.7 0.4–1.3 0.9 0.7–1.3 1.9* 1.0–3.5 0.9 0.7–1.2
  1. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, n/a not applicable, ANC antenatal care, SBA skilledbirth attendant, PNC postnatal care