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Table 4 Subgroup analyses of studies using different TM patterns

From: Effectiveness of telemedicine for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis

OutcomeTM patternNo. of trialsPooled effectHeterogeneity
Effect size95% CIPI2P
Change in HbA1cGroup 15MD = -0.34(−0.67, −0.01)0.0494< 0.01
Group 23MD = -0.63(−1.11, −0.14)0.0183< 0.01
Change in FBGGroup 18MD = -0.25(−0.43, −0.08)< 0.01560.03
Group 24MD = -0.29(− 0.65, 0.06)0.1184< 0.01
Group 36MD = -0.64(−1.26, −0.02)0.0494< 0.01
Change in 2hBGGroup 14MD = -0.29(−0.70, 0.11)0.15260.26
Group 24MD = -0.60(−1.92, 0.72)0.3797< 0.01
Group 35MD = -1.55(−2.29, −0.81)0.0292< 0.01
Caesarean sectionGroup 110RR = 0.96(0.73, 1.27)0.7765< 0.01
Group 23RR = 0.67(0.57, 0.92)0.0100.50
Group 45RR = 0.67(0.57, 0.80)< 0.0100.73
PIH or preeclampsiaGroup 17RR = 0.69(0.44, 1.08)0.10160.31
Group 33RR = 0.44(0.35, 0.56)< 0.0100.98
Premature rupture of membranesGroup 14RR = 0.76(0.40, 1.44)0.40220.28
MacrosomiaGroup 17RR = 0.95(0.55, 1.65)0.85320.19
Group 25RR = 0.43(0.20, 0.92)0.03480.10
Group 33RR = 0.21(0.09, 0.48)< 0.01610.08
Group 43RR = 0.44(0.27, 0.71)< 0.0100.64
Neonatal hypoglycaemiaGroup 17RR = 1.20(0.81, 1.78)0.36082.4
Group 23RR = 0.36(0.22, 0.60)< 0.0100.78
Preterm birthGroup 17RR = 0.42(0.22, 0.80)< 0.01200.27
Group 33RR = 0.21(0.13, 0.32)< 0.01160.30
PolyhydramniosGroup 33RR = 0.17(0.09, 0.32)< 0.0100.92
Admission to NICUGroup 17RR = 0.88(0.56, 1.40)0.60200.28
Neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinemiaGroup 15RR = 1.09(0.69, 1.71)0.7100.72
NARDSGroup 14RR = 0.81(0.37, 1.77)0.6000.47
  1. Group 1: real-time monitoring and feedback, Group 2: health education and question answering, Group 3: real-time monitoring and feedback + health education and question answering, Group 4: real-time monitoring and feedback + health education and question answering + peer support
  2. GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, 2hBG 2-h postprandial blood glucose, FBG fasting blood glucose, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, MD mean difference, TM telemedicine