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Table 4 Subgroup analyses of studies using different TM patterns

From: Effectiveness of telemedicine for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis

Outcome TM pattern No. of trials Pooled effect Heterogeneity
Effect size 95% CI P I2 P
Change in HbA1c Group 1 5 MD = -0.34 (−0.67, −0.01) 0.04 94 < 0.01
Group 2 3 MD = -0.63 (−1.11, −0.14) 0.01 83 < 0.01
Change in FBG Group 1 8 MD = -0.25 (−0.43, −0.08) < 0.01 56 0.03
Group 2 4 MD = -0.29 (− 0.65, 0.06) 0.11 84 < 0.01
Group 3 6 MD = -0.64 (−1.26, −0.02) 0.04 94 < 0.01
Change in 2hBG Group 1 4 MD = -0.29 (−0.70, 0.11) 0.15 26 0.26
Group 2 4 MD = -0.60 (−1.92, 0.72) 0.37 97 < 0.01
Group 3 5 MD = -1.55 (−2.29, −0.81) 0.02 92 < 0.01
Caesarean section Group 1 10 RR = 0.96 (0.73, 1.27) 0.77 65 < 0.01
Group 2 3 RR = 0.67 (0.57, 0.92) 0.01 0 0.50
Group 4 5 RR = 0.67 (0.57, 0.80) < 0.01 0 0.73
PIH or preeclampsia Group 1 7 RR = 0.69 (0.44, 1.08) 0.10 16 0.31
Group 3 3 RR = 0.44 (0.35, 0.56) < 0.01 0 0.98
Premature rupture of membranes Group 1 4 RR = 0.76 (0.40, 1.44) 0.40 22 0.28
Macrosomia Group 1 7 RR = 0.95 (0.55, 1.65) 0.85 32 0.19
Group 2 5 RR = 0.43 (0.20, 0.92) 0.03 48 0.10
Group 3 3 RR = 0.21 (0.09, 0.48) < 0.01 61 0.08
Group 4 3 RR = 0.44 (0.27, 0.71) < 0.01 0 0.64
Neonatal hypoglycaemia Group 1 7 RR = 1.20 (0.81, 1.78) 0.36 0 82.4
Group 2 3 RR = 0.36 (0.22, 0.60) < 0.01 0 0.78
Preterm birth Group 1 7 RR = 0.42 (0.22, 0.80) < 0.01 20 0.27
Group 3 3 RR = 0.21 (0.13, 0.32) < 0.01 16 0.30
Polyhydramnios Group 3 3 RR = 0.17 (0.09, 0.32) < 0.01 0 0.92
Admission to NICU Group 1 7 RR = 0.88 (0.56, 1.40) 0.60 20 0.28
Neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia Group 1 5 RR = 1.09 (0.69, 1.71) 0.71 0 0.72
NARDS Group 1 4 RR = 0.81 (0.37, 1.77) 0.60 0 0.47
  1. Group 1: real-time monitoring and feedback, Group 2: health education and question answering, Group 3: real-time monitoring and feedback + health education and question answering, Group 4: real-time monitoring and feedback + health education and question answering + peer support
  2. GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, 2hBG 2-h postprandial blood glucose, FBG fasting blood glucose, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, MD mean difference, TM telemedicine