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Table 3 Subgroup analyses of studies using different types of TM tools

From: Effectiveness of telemedicine for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis

Outcome TM tools No. of trials Pooled effect Heterogeneity
Effect size 95% CI P I2 P
Change in HbA1c Health app or device 4 MD = -0.75 (− 1.25, − 0.25) < 0.01 95 0.01
WeChat 6 MD = -0.84 (−1.46, − 0.22) < 0.01 95 < 0.01
Change in FBG Health app or device 6 MD = -0.05 (−0.23, 0.12) 0.54 16 0.31
Web-based system 5 MD = -0.48 (− 0.95, − 0.00) 0.05 91 < 0.01
WeChat 9 MD = -0.85 (−1.35, −0.35) < 0.01 96 < 0.01
Change in 2hBG Health app or device 5 MD = -0.50 (−0.97, − 0.03) 0.04 38 0.17
WeChat 8 MD = -1.26 (−2.63, 0.11) 0.07 98 < 0.01
Caesarean section Health app or device 6 RR = 0.76 (0.60, 0.97) 0.03 33 0.19
Web-based system 3 RR = 1.19 (0.69, 2.06) 0.54 67 0.05
WeChat 10 RR = 0.82 (0.60, 0.96) 0.02 56 0.02
PIH or preeclampsia Health app or device 3 RR = 0.76 (0.28, 2.09) 0.60 35 0.22
Web-based system 3 RR = 0.50 (0.40, 0.62) < 0.01 70 0.04
WeChat 6 RR = 0.39 (0.26, 0.61) < 0.01 0 0.93
Premature rupture of membranes Web-based system 3 RR = 0.56 (0.44, 0.71) < 0.01 21 0.28
WeChat 3 RR = 0.80 (0.53, 1.19) 0.27 0 0.51
Macrosomia Health app or device 4 RR = 1.16 (0.65, 2.06) 0.62 27 0.25
Web-based system 3 RR = 0.61 (0.07, 5.58) 0.66 81 < 0.01
WeChat 11 RR = 0.44 (0.32, 0.59) < 0.01 4 0.40
Admission to the NICU Health app or device 3 RR = 0.74 (0.44, 1.24) 0.25 14 0.32
Web-based system 3 RR = 1.33 (0.69, 2.59) 0.40 46 0.16
Neonatal hypoglycaemia Health app or device 4 RR = 1.25 (0.81, 1.92) 0.31 0 0.78
WeChat 6 RR = 0.40 (0.28, 0.59) < 0.01 0 0.86
Preterm birth Health app or device 3 RR = 0.40 (0.17, 0.96) 0.04 0 0.75
Web-based system 3 RR = 0.22 (0.15, 0.32) < 0.01 84 < 0.01
WeChat 7 RR = 0.32 (0.21, 0.48) < 0.01 0 0.66
Neonatal asphyxia WeChat 4 RR = 0.17 (0.08, 0.33) < 0.01 0 0.88
Polyhydramnios WeChat 5 RR = 0.17 (0.08, 0.35) < 0.01 0 0.99
  1. GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, 2hBG 2-h postprandial blood glucose, FBG fasting blood glucose, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, MD mean difference, TM telemedicine