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Table 3 Subgroup analyses of studies using different types of TM tools

From: Effectiveness of telemedicine for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis

OutcomeTM toolsNo. of trialsPooled effectHeterogeneity
Effect size95% CIPI2P
Change in HbA1cHealth app or device4MD = -0.75(− 1.25, − 0.25)< 0.01950.01
WeChat6MD = -0.84(−1.46, − 0.22)< 0.0195< 0.01
Change in FBGHealth app or device6MD = -0.05(−0.23, 0.12)0.54160.31
Web-based system5MD = -0.48(− 0.95, − 0.00)0.0591< 0.01
WeChat9MD = -0.85(−1.35, −0.35)< 0.0196< 0.01
Change in 2hBGHealth app or device5MD = -0.50(−0.97, − 0.03)0.04380.17
WeChat8MD = -1.26(−2.63, 0.11)0.0798< 0.01
Caesarean sectionHealth app or device6RR = 0.76(0.60, 0.97)0.03330.19
Web-based system3RR = 1.19(0.69, 2.06)0.54670.05
WeChat10RR = 0.82(0.60, 0.96)0.02560.02
PIH or preeclampsiaHealth app or device3RR = 0.76(0.28, 2.09)0.60350.22
Web-based system3RR = 0.50(0.40, 0.62)< 0.01700.04
WeChat6RR = 0.39(0.26, 0.61)< 0.0100.93
Premature rupture of membranesWeb-based system3RR = 0.56(0.44, 0.71)< 0.01210.28
WeChat3RR = 0.80(0.53, 1.19)0.2700.51
MacrosomiaHealth app or device4RR = 1.16(0.65, 2.06)0.62270.25
Web-based system3RR = 0.61(0.07, 5.58)0.6681< 0.01
WeChat11RR = 0.44(0.32, 0.59)< 0.0140.40
Admission to the NICUHealth app or device3RR = 0.74(0.44, 1.24)0.25140.32
Web-based system3RR = 1.33(0.69, 2.59)0.40460.16
Neonatal hypoglycaemiaHealth app or device4RR = 1.25(0.81, 1.92)0.3100.78
WeChat6RR = 0.40(0.28, 0.59)< 0.0100.86
Preterm birthHealth app or device3RR = 0.40(0.17, 0.96)0.0400.75
Web-based system3RR = 0.22(0.15, 0.32)< 0.0184< 0.01
WeChat7RR = 0.32(0.21, 0.48)< 0.0100.66
Neonatal asphyxiaWeChat4RR = 0.17(0.08, 0.33)< 0.0100.88
PolyhydramniosWeChat5RR = 0.17(0.08, 0.35)< 0.0100.99
  1. GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, 2hBG 2-h postprandial blood glucose, FBG fasting blood glucose, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, MD mean difference, TM telemedicine