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Table 2 Meta-analyses of maternal/foetal outcomes of TM interventions compared to standard care in patients with GDM

From: Effectiveness of telemedicine for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis

Outcome No. of trials Pooled effect Heterogeneity
Effect size 95%CI P I2 P
Caesarean section 19 [4, 6, 7, 19, 23, 30,31,32, 34,35,36, 40,41,42,43,44, 46, 48] RR = 0.82 (0.69, 0.97) 0.02 57 0.01
PIH or preeclampsia 12 [4, 7, 20,21,22, 32,33,34, 36, 43, 44, 49] RR = 0.48 (0.40, 0.58) < 0.01 11 0.34
Premature rupture of membranes 7 [22, 32, 33, 36, 41, 46, 49] RR = 0.61 (0.50, 0.76) < 0.01 15 0.31
Macrosomia 18 [6, 7, 19,20,21,22,23,24, 30, 31, 35,36,37, 41, 43, 44, 47, 49] RR = 0.49 (0.30, 0.80) < 0.01 77 < 0.01
Neonatal hypoglycaemia 12 [4, 6, 7, 19, 24, 32,33,34, 36, 40, 41, 43] RR = 0.67 (0.51, 0.87) < 0.01 39 0.08
Preterm birth 13 [7, 19,20,21,22, 31,32,33,34, 36, 41, 44, 49] RR = 0.27 (0.20, 0.35) < 0.01 38 0.08
Neonatal asphyxia 5 [21, 22, 41, 44, 49] RR = 0.17 (0.08, 0.33) < 0.01 0 0.85
Polyhydramnios 7 [4, 20,21,22, 43, 44, 49] RR = 0.16 (0.10, 0.28) < 0.01 0 0.99
Admission to the NICU 7 [4, 7, 31,32,33, 35, 36] RR = 0.89 (0.60, 1.32) 0.57 20 0.28
Neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia 6 [7, 31,32,33, 36, 41] RR = 1.00 (0.64, 1.55) 0.99 0 0.68
NARDS 6 [7, 31,32,33, 36, 41] RR = 0.66 (0.33, 1.33) 0.25 0 0.41
  1. GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, NARDS neonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, TM telemedicine