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Table 2 Meta-analyses of maternal/foetal outcomes of TM interventions compared to standard care in patients with GDM

From: Effectiveness of telemedicine for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis

OutcomeNo. of trialsPooled effectHeterogeneity
Effect size95%CIPI2P
Caesarean section19 [4, 6, 7, 19, 23, 30,31,32, 34,35,36, 40,41,42,43,44, 46, 48]RR = 0.82(0.69, 0.97)0.02570.01
PIH or preeclampsia12 [4, 7, 20,21,22, 32,33,34, 36, 43, 44, 49]RR = 0.48(0.40, 0.58)< 0.01110.34
Premature rupture of membranes7 [22, 32, 33, 36, 41, 46, 49]RR = 0.61(0.50, 0.76)< 0.01150.31
Macrosomia18 [6, 7, 19,20,21,22,23,24, 30, 31, 35,36,37, 41, 43, 44, 47, 49]RR = 0.49(0.30, 0.80)< 0.0177< 0.01
Neonatal hypoglycaemia12 [4, 6, 7, 19, 24, 32,33,34, 36, 40, 41, 43]RR = 0.67(0.51, 0.87)< 0.01390.08
Preterm birth13 [7, 19,20,21,22, 31,32,33,34, 36, 41, 44, 49]RR = 0.27(0.20, 0.35)< 0.01380.08
Neonatal asphyxia5 [21, 22, 41, 44, 49]RR = 0.17(0.08, 0.33)< 0.0100.85
Polyhydramnios7 [4, 20,21,22, 43, 44, 49]RR = 0.16(0.10, 0.28)< 0.0100.99
Admission to the NICU7 [4, 7, 31,32,33, 35, 36]RR = 0.89(0.60, 1.32)0.57200.28
Neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia6 [7, 31,32,33, 36, 41]RR = 1.00(0.64, 1.55)0.9900.68
NARDS6 [7, 31,32,33, 36, 41]RR = 0.66(0.33, 1.33)0.2500.41
  1. GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, NARDS neonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, TM telemedicine