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Table 1 Basic characteristics and outcomes of included studies

From: Effectiveness of telemedicine for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis

Study Country/region Sample size (Trial/Control) TM interventiona Mean age (year) College education (%) Gestational age at enrolment (week) Outcomeb
Carral 2015 [29] Spain 77 (30/47) Web-based system 33.8 22.1 21.1
Dalfra 2009 [30] Italy 203 (88/115) Health device 34.0 28.0
Given 2015 [31] North Ireland and Ireland 50 (24/26) Health device 31.7 28.0 ⑩⑫
Guo 2019 [6] China 124 (64/60) Health app 30.9 55.6 24.9
Homko 2007 [32] USA 57 (32/25) Web-based system 29.5 43.9 27.6 ⑩⑪⑫
Homko 2012 [33] USA 80 (40/40) Web-based system 30.2 60.0 28.5 ⑩⑪⑫
Mackillop 2018 [7] UK 203 (101/102) Health app 33.5 48.5 31.0 ⑪⑫
Miremberg 2018 [4] Israel 120 (60/60) Health app 31.9 32.5 ⑩⑪⑭
Perez-Ferre 2010 [34] Spain 97 (49/48) Health app 33.8 15.5 ⑪⑫
Rasekaba 2018 [35] Australia 95 (61/34) Web-based system 32.0 28.0
Yang 2018 [36] China 107 (57/50) WeChat 31.9 ⑪⑫
Carolan-Olah 2019 [37] Australia 110 (52/58) Web-based system 31.7 47.3 28–30
Kim 2019 [3] Korea 44 (22/22) Web-based system 35.8 97.7 27.4
Gao 2017 [18] China 58 (28/30) Health app 27.8 31.0
Hua 2018 [19] China 120 (60/60) WeChat 27.6 25.8 24.0 ⑪⑫
Zhang 2018 [38] China 80 (40/40) Health app 29.5 26.9
Zhao 2018 [39] China 60 (30/30) Health app
Zeng 2017 [40] China 86 (43/43) WeChat 74.4
Fang 2017 [41] China 60 (30/30) WeChat 30.8 23.0 ⑪⑫⑬
Ge 2017 [23] China 586 (308/278) WeChat 30.5 45.1 26.0
Huang 2016 [42] China 80 (40/40) WeChat 39.0 28.8 36.7
Jiang 2017 [43] China 150 (78/72) WeChat 28.0 29.5 ⑩⑪⑭
Jiang 2019 [44] China 200 (100/100) WeChat 28.7 ⑫⑬⑭
Jiang 2016 [20] China 120 (60/60) WeChat 25.3 22.8 ⑫⑭
Liu 2018 [45] China 98 (49/49) Health device 27.8 30.3
Lu 201 [21] China 280 (140/140) WeChat 26.1 47.9 ⑫⑬⑭
Luo 2017 [46] China 107 (57/50) WeChat 31.9
Shao 2018 [47] China 410 (205/205) WeChat 30.5 52.9
Su 2018 [22] China 820 (420/400) Web-based system 28.2 27.0 ⑫⑬⑭
Weng 2018 [48] China 120 (60/60) WeChat 39.5 53.3 36.6
Xiao 2016 [24] China 206 (103/103) WeChat 29.7 26.4
Yang 2015 [49] China 100 (50/50) WeChat 30.0 80.0 ⑫⑬⑭
  1. aTM intervention: Detailed descriptions are listed in Additional file 3. bOutcome: change of HbA1c; change in FBG; change in 2hBG; caesarean section; pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia; premature rupture of membranes; macrosomia; admission to the NICU; neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia; ⑩NARDS; ⑪neonatal hypoglycaemia; ⑫preterm birth; ⑬neonatal asphyxia; ⑭polyhydramnios