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Table 1 Basic characteristics and outcomes of included studies

From: Effectiveness of telemedicine for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis

StudyCountry/regionSample size (Trial/Control)TM interventionaMean age (year)College education (%)Gestational age at enrolment (week)Outcomeb
Carral 2015 [29]Spain77 (30/47)Web-based system33.822.121.1
Dalfra 2009 [30]Italy203 (88/115)Health device34.028.0
Given 2015 [31]North Ireland and Ireland50 (24/26)Health device31.728.0⑩⑫
Guo 2019 [6]China124 (64/60)Health app30.955.624.9
Homko 2007 [32]USA57 (32/25)Web-based system29.543.927.6⑩⑪⑫
Homko 2012 [33]USA80 (40/40)Web-based system30.260.028.5⑩⑪⑫
Mackillop 2018 [7]UK203 (101/102)Health app33.548.531.0⑪⑫
Miremberg 2018 [4]Israel120 (60/60)Health app31.932.5⑩⑪⑭
Perez-Ferre 2010 [34]Spain97 (49/48)Health app33.815.5⑪⑫
Rasekaba 2018 [35]Australia95 (61/34)Web-based system32.028.0
Yang 2018 [36]China107 (57/50)WeChat31.9⑪⑫
Carolan-Olah 2019 [37]Australia110 (52/58)Web-based system31.747.328–30
Kim 2019 [3]Korea44 (22/22)Web-based system35.897.727.4
Gao 2017 [18]China58 (28/30)Health app27.831.0
Hua 2018 [19]China120 (60/60)WeChat27.625.824.0⑪⑫
Zhang 2018 [38]China80 (40/40)Health app29.526.9
Zhao 2018 [39]China60 (30/30)Health app
Zeng 2017 [40]China86 (43/43)WeChat74.4
Fang 2017 [41]China60 (30/30)WeChat30.823.0⑪⑫⑬
Ge 2017 [23]China586 (308/278)WeChat30.545.126.0
Huang 2016 [42]China80 (40/40)WeChat39.028.836.7
Jiang 2017 [43]China150 (78/72)WeChat28.029.5⑩⑪⑭
Jiang 2019 [44]China200 (100/100)WeChat28.7⑫⑬⑭
Jiang 2016 [20]China120 (60/60)WeChat25.322.8⑫⑭
Liu 2018 [45]China98 (49/49)Health device27.830.3
Lu 201 [21]China280 (140/140)WeChat26.147.9⑫⑬⑭
Luo 2017 [46]China107 (57/50)WeChat31.9
Shao 2018 [47]China410 (205/205)WeChat30.552.9
Su 2018 [22]China820 (420/400)Web-based system28.227.0⑫⑬⑭
Weng 2018 [48]China120 (60/60)WeChat39.553.336.6
Xiao 2016 [24]China206 (103/103)WeChat29.726.4
Yang 2015 [49]China100 (50/50)WeChat30.080.0⑫⑬⑭
  1. aTM intervention: Detailed descriptions are listed in Additional file 3. bOutcome: change of HbA1c; change in FBG; change in 2hBG; caesarean section; pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia; premature rupture of membranes; macrosomia; admission to the NICU; neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia; ⑩NARDS; ⑪neonatal hypoglycaemia; ⑫preterm birth; ⑬neonatal asphyxia; ⑭polyhydramnios