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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of participants included in the study (N = 916), Gondar town, Ethiopia, 2018

From: Antenatal depression and its potential causal mechanisms among pregnant mothers in Gondar town: application of structural equation model

Variable/categoryRisk of depression 
Had depression (n = 63), n (%)No depression (n = 853), n (%)Total n = 916, n (%)p-value
Mothers’ age   0.707
 18–2420 (31.8)271 (31.8)291 (31.8) 
 25–3437 (58.7)524 (61.4)561 (61.2) 
  > =356 (9.5)58 (6.8)64 (7.0) 
 Mean(±SD)26.9 (±5.2)26.5(±4.5)26.5(±4.5) 
Household monthly income   0.057
 Low40 (63.5)409 (48.0)449 (49.0) 
 Medium19 (30.2)355 (41.6)374 (40.8) 
 High4 (6.3)89 (10.4)93 (10.2) 
Monthly income (Mean(±SD)2753 (±2160)3551.4(±3006)3496.5(±2962.3) 
Mothers’ education   0.024
 No formal education12 (19.1)106 (12.4)118 (12.9) 
 Grade 1–813 (20.6)221 (25.9)234 (25.6) 
 Grade 9–1231 (49.2)316 (37.1)347 (37.8) 
 Diploma and above7 (11.1)210 (24.6)217 (23.7) 
Mothers’ occupation   0.016
 Home duties42 (66.7)612 (71.7)654 (71.4) 
 Student2 (3.2)13 (1.5)15 (1.6) 
 Government employee4 (6.3)125 (14.7)129(14.1) 
 Self-employee15 (23.8)103 (12.1)118 (12.9) 
Mothers’ religion   0.848
  Orthodox51 (80.9)683 (80.1)734 (80.1) 
  Muslim11 (17.5)162 (19.0)173 (18.9) 
  Protestant1 (1.6)8 (0.9)9 (1.0) 
Mothers’ marital status   0.001
 Single5 (7.9)11 (1.3)16 (1.8) 
 Married54 (85.7)826 (96.8)880 (96.1) 
 Divorced1 (1.6)3 (0.4)4 (0.4) 
 Separated3 (4.8)13 (1.5)16 (1.7) 
How often partner discuss and agree on things from their own perspectives  0.001
 Most of the time13 (22.8)428 (51.0)441 (49.2) 
 Sometimes25 (43.9)352 (42.0)377 (42.1) 
 Rarely15 (26.3)52 (6.2)67 (7.5) 
 Never4 (7.0)7 (0.8)11 (1.2) 
Difficulty to access food for their family in the last 3 months 0.001
 Yes13 (20.6)25 (2.9)38 (4.2) 
 No50 (79.4)828 (97.1)878 (95.8) 
  1. p-value is based on Chi-square or fisher exact test wherever the expected cell counts are < 5