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Table 7 Significant association (P < 0.15) between factors and breastfeeding initiation among CMI, revealed by univariate logistic regression analyses (Results of Phase 1)

From: Breastfeeding practices 2008–2009 among Chinese mothers living in Ireland: a mixed methods study

  Initiated breastfeeding Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Mean ± SD  
Socio-demographic factors
 Length of Irish residency at time of interview (years) 7.8 ± 5.07 0.95 (0.902–0.996)*
 Child’s current age (years) 3.8 ± 3.34 0.90 (0.84–0.97)*
  n (%)  
Mother‘s birthplace
 Mainland China 184 (78.3) 2.62 (1.28–5.36)*
 Hong Kong 22 (57.9) 1
Education level
 Tertiary 117 (82.4) 2.16 (1.23–3.80)*
 Primary/Secondary 91 (68.4) 1
Current occupation
 Self-employed/ Professional work 54 (87.1) 3.01 (1.30–6.95)*
 Non-professional work 69 (76.7) 1.47 (0.79–2.73)
 Housewife 83 (69.2) 1
Mother has been breastfed
 Yes 183 (78.9) 2.69 (1.36–5.32)*
 No/Don’t know 25 (58.1) 1
Husband’s education level
 Tertiary 92 (82.1) 1.88 (1.04–3.39)*
 Primary/Secondary 115 (71.0) 1
Parity
 Primiparous 137 (80.1) 1.87 (1.07–3.27)*
 Multiparous 71 (68.3) 1
Current accommodation
 Rented 150 (79.4) 0.53 (0.30–0.94)*
 Family’s own property 57 (67.1) 1
Husband’s current occupation
 Self-employed/ Professional work 72 (82.8) 0.55 (0.29–1.06)
 Non-professional work/ Unemployed 133 (72.7) 1
Child’s gender
 Female 101 (79.5) 1.53 (0.87–2.69)
 Male 104 (71.7) 1
Behavioural factors
Maternal breastfeeding experience
 Had given birth to and breastfed the other child (ren) 61 (81.3) 1
 Had given birth to but not breastfed any other child (ren) 10 (37.0) 0.14 (0.05–0.36)*
 Did not have birth nor breastfeeding experience 137 (80.1) 0.93 (0.46–1.85)
Newborn bed shared with the mother
 Yes 56 (82.4) 1.70 (0.85–3.41)
 No 151 (73.3) 1
Social support and influence
Feeding information obtained from internet
 Yes 64 (88.9) 3.28 (1.48–7.26)*
 No 144 (70.9) 1
Feeding information obtained from antenatal classes
 Yes 63 (85.1) 2.21 (1.09–4.50)*
 No 145 (72.1) 1
Feeding information obtained from mothers’ own mother
 Yes 129 (81.6)  
 No 78 (67.2) 1
Her own mother’s attitude influenced her feeding choice
 Yes 86 (84.3) 2.25 (1.20–4.20)*
 No 122 (70.5) 1
Health professionals’ attitude influenced mother’s feeding choice
 Yes 63 (91.3) 4.42 (1.82–10.75)*
 No 145 (70.4) 1
Attitudinal factors
Feeding decision was made
 Before pregnancy 125 (88.0) 11.95 (5.35–26.67)*
 During pregnancy 67 (73.6) 4.54 (2.08–9.88)*
 After the child was born 16 (38.1) 1
Attitude towards colostrum
 Important for the baby 192 (82.1) 7.14 (3.51–14.54)*
 Harmful for the baby/Should be discard/Don’t know 16 (39.0) 1
I do not like breastfeeding.
 Disagree 179 (85.2) 7.17 (3.86–13.33)*
 Agree/Don’t know 29 (44.6) 1
Formula feeding is more convenient than breastfeeding.
 Disagree 91 (85.0) 2.48 (1.33–4.63)*
 Agree/Don’t know 117 (69.6) 1
I would feel embarrassed if someone saw me breastfeeding.
 Disagree 98 (82.4) 1.96 (1.09–3.50)*
 Agree/Don’t know 110 (70.5) 1
Some traditional Chinese food can help to improve milk production.
 Agree 181 (78.7) 2.46 (1.25–4.84)*
 Disagree/Don’t know 27 (60.0) 1
Mean ± SD  
Awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (score) 4.1 ± 0.69 2.46 (1.64–3.67)*
  1. *P < 0.05
  2. Biomedical factors were not included in this table as none of the variables had a significant association (P < 0.15) with breastfeeding initiation among CMI