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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristic of the samples (Phase 1)

From: Breastfeeding practices 2008–2009 among Chinese mothers living in Ireland: a mixed methods study

 Total populationCMCCMIP value
(n = 322)(n = 47)(n = 275)
No. (%)No. (%)No. (%)
Mother’s age at time of childbirth (years)< 0.001
 20–25108 (34.4)27 (60.0)81 (30.1) 
 26–30121 (38.5)10 (22.2)111 (41.3) 
  > 3085 (27.1)8 (17.8)77 (28.6) 
Marital status0.265
 Married275 (85.4)43 (91.5)232 (84.4) 
 Single/Divorced/Widow47 (14.6)4 (8.5)43 (15.6) 
Mothers’ education level1.00
 Primary/Secondary156 (48.4)23 (48.9)133 (48.4) 
 Tertiary166 (51.6)24 (51.1)142 (51.6) 
Mother’s birthplace0.656
 Mainland China273 (85.3)39 (83.0)234 (85.7) 
 Hong Kong47 (14.7)8 (17.0)39 (14.3) 
Maternal length of Irish residency at time of interview (years)< 0.001
  < =598 (30.4)29 (61.7)69 (25.1) 
  > 5–10180 (55.9)17 (36.2)163 (59.3) 
  > 1044 (13.7)1 (2.1)43 (15.6) 
Child’s order< 0.001
 1216 (67.1)45 (95.7)171 (62.2) 
 2/3/4106 (32.9)2 (4.3)104 (37.8) 
Child’s gender0.636
 Male168 (52.7)23 (48.9)145 (53.3) 
 Female151 (47.3)24 (51.1)127 (46.7) 
Mother herself having been breastfed as a baby0.115
 Yes276 (85.7)44 (93.6)232 (84.4) 
 No/Don’t know46 (14.3)3 (6.4)43 (15.6) 
Husband’s nationality0.800
 Chinese280 (88.3)40 (90.9)240 (87.9) 
 Not Chinese37 (11.7)4 (9.1)33 (12.2) 
Husband‘s education level0.332
 Primary/Secondary18523 (51.1)162 (59.1) 
 Tertiary13422 (48.9)112 (40.9) 
Mother’s current occupationa
 Self-employed/ Professional work  62 (22.9) 
 Non-professional work  89 (32.8) 
 Housewife  120 (44.3) 
Mother’s current accommodationa
 Rented  189 (69.0) 
 Family’s own property  85 (31.0) 
Mother’s self-perceived level of English comprehensiona
 Very good/good  142 (51.6) 
 Not good/Not at all  133 (48.4) 
Husband‘s current occupationa
 Self-employed/ Professional work  87 (32.2) 
 Non-professional work  175 (64.8) 
 Unemployed  8 (3.0) 
Family income (Euro, before tax)a
  < 15,000  40 (14.9) 
 15,000030,000  134 (50.0) 
  > 30,000  94 (35.1) 
Mean ± S.D.Mean ± S.D.Mean ± S.D. 
Child’s age at time of the interview5.22 ± 4.6811.72 ± 5.654.11 ± 3.46< 0.001
  1. CMC Chinese mother gave birth in China, CMI Chinese mother gave birth in Ireland
  2. Columns where the numbers do not add up to the specific n reflect missing values for this column
  3. P value was obtained from Pearson Chi-square statistics (categorical variables) or Independent sample t-test (continuous variables) to detect the differences between CMC and CMI. P < 0.05 was considered as significant different
  4. Mainland China included the provinces of Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi; Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Sichuang, Yunnan, Zhejiang; Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; and the municipality of Beijing, Tianjin, Chongqing, and Shanghai
  5. Hong Kong indicated Hong Kong Special Administrative Regions of China. In this study, one subject from Macau was grouped into this category
  6. aThese variables were only investigated among CMI but not the whole study population