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Table 3 Distribution of potential risk factors by UTI status, bivariate analysis

From: Urinary tract infections in pregnancy in a rural population of Bangladesh: population-based prevalence, risk factors, etiology, and antibiotic resistance

 TotalNo UTI (N = 3674)UTI (N = 360)χ2 (p-value)
Socio-demographic characteristic
 Household wealth quintiles (missing: 1)
  Lowest tertile13611217 (89.4%)144 (10.6%)7.867 (0.0196)
  Middle tertile13351220 (91.4%)115 (8.6%)
  Highest tertile13381237 (92.5%)101 (7.6%)
Hand washing station (missing; 0)
  No39243575 (91.1%)349 (8.9%)0.161 (0.688)
  Yes11099 (90.0%)11 (10.0%)
 Household size (missing: 1)
  1–3 household members649584 (90.0%)65 (10.0%)2.529 (0.283)
  4–6 household members17301589 (91.9%)141 (8.1%)
  7+ household members16541500 (90.7%)154 (9.3%)
 Low MUAC at enrollment (missing: 8)
  No24192228 (92.1%)191 (7.9%)7.782 (0.005)
  Yes16071439 (89.6%)168 (10.4%)
 Religion (missing: 1)
  Islam38713527 (91.1%)344 (8.9%)0.187 (0.665)
  Other162146 (90.1%)16 (9.9%)
 Mother’s age at enrollment (missing: 0)
   < 20381341 (89.5%)40 (10.5%)2.044 (0.360)
  20–2925672349 (91.5%)218 (8.5%)
  30 or more1086984 90.6%)102 (9.4%)
 Mother’s education (missing: 0)
  No Education (0 years)786695 (88.4%)91 (11.6%)10.280 (0.0059)
  Primary Education (1–5 years)15221385 (91.0%)137 (9.0%)
  Secondary or higher Education (6+)17261594 (92.4%)132 (7.6%)
Husband’s education (missing: 0)
  No Education (0 years)13601213 (89.2%)147 (10.8%)15.665 (0.0004)
  Primary Education (1–5 years)15721428 (90.8%)144 (9.2%)
  Secondary or higher Education (6+ years)11021033 (93.7%)69 (6.3%)
Reproductive and sexual history
 Primiparous at enrollment (missing: 1)
  No27102486 (91.7%)224 (8.3%)4.436 (0.035)
  Yes13231187 (89.7%)136 (10.3%)
 Hormonal contraceptive history (missing: 0)
  No39643611 (91.1%)353 (8.9%)0.101 (0.7501)
  Yes7063 (90.0%)7 (10.0%)