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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of screened pregnant women by T-ACE scores: Lusaka, Zambia, July 2017 (n = 188)

From: Alcohol use, pregnancy and associated risk factors: a pilot cross-sectional study of pregnant women attending prenatal care in an urban city

 T-ACE Scored 
< 2 points (n = 116)> 2 points (n = 40)
Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)p-value
Maternal age at screening (years)27.0 (25.9–28.1)25.7 (24.0–27.4)0.299
Gestational age at screening (weeks)24.2 (22.6–25.9)24.5 (21.7–27.2)0.808
Number of times pregnant3.0 (2.8–3.2)2.9 (2.51–3.19)0.086
Maternal age first time had alcohol drink18.4 (17.2–19.6)19.6 (17.7–21.4)0.296
 N (%)N (%) 
Employment status  0.602
 Unemployed68 (40.5)25 (14.9) 
 Employed16 (9.5)9 (5.4) 
Marital status  0.934
 Single (never married/dating)15 (8.9)7 (4.2) 
 Married82 (48.85)30 (17.9) 
 Divorced/separated/windowed3 (1.8)1 (0.6) 
Education  0.432
 Some primary school11 (6.5)7 (4.2) 
 Primary school24 (14.3)9 (5.4) 
 Secondary school48 (28.6)18 (10.7) 
  > college17 (10.1)3 (1.8) 
Religion  0.756
 Christian (e.g., Catholic, protestant)98 (58.3)38 (22.6) 
 Muslim0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 
 Not religious1 (0.6)0 (0.0) 
Household income (monthly)  0.569
 Dependent (no income)31 (18.5)11 (6.5) 
  ≤ 1000 ZMW15 (8.9)8 (4.8) 
  > 1000 ZMW37 (22.0)12 (7.1) 
Primary source of emotional support  0.580
 Parent or relative42 (25.0)20 (11.9) 
 Spouse or significant other51 (30.4)15 (8.9) 
 Friend6 (3.6)1 (0.6) 
Prenatal care (regular)  0.001
 no17 (10.1)2 (1.2) 
 yes82 (48.8)35 (20.8) 
Distance factor to accessing prenatal care  0.001
 no44 (26.2)16 (9.5) 
 yes30 (17.9)12 (7.1) 
  1. Note: Descriptive statistics were calculated and reported for women who answered the questions as means with associated confidence intervals, and percentages as appropriate. Only participants who responded to all the four T-ACE questions are included in the analysis (n = 156 or 188 participants)