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Table 4 Factors associated with birth outcomes in the control group (n = 110)a

From: Maternal nutritional adequacy and gestational weight gain and their associations with birth outcomes among Vietnamese women

 Adjusted Estimate (95% CI)P value
Birth weight
 Mother’s age at enrollment−3.9 (−24.5, 16.7)0.706
 Gestational age at birth97.4 (58.4, 136)< 0.001
 Infant’s gender 0.329
  Female (reference group)0 
  Male60.4 (−61.7, 183) 
 Education level 0.029
  Primary school (reference group)0 
  Secondary school687 (212, 1163) 
  High school729 (253, 1206) 
  College / University739 (248, 1229) 
 Economic status 0.965
  Low (reference group)0 
  Medium12.7 (− 142, 167) 
  High25.6 (− 166, 217) 
 Energy intake at baseline0.04 (− 0.14, 0.22)0.649
 Energy adjusted carbohydrate intake0.47 (−1.16, 2.09)0.569
 Gestational weight gain at 26 to 29 weeks42.9 (17.5, 68.3)0.001
Birth length
 Mother’s age at enrollment0.04 (−0.09, 0.17)0.538
 Gestational age at birth0.50 (0.24, 0.75)< 0.001
 Infant’s gender 0.665
  Female (reference group)0 
  Male−0.17 (− 0.94, 0.60) 
 Education level 0.072
  Primary school (reference group)0 
  Secondary school3.41 (0.41, 6.41) 
  High school3.77 (0.78, 6.77) 
  College / University3.17 (0.15, 6.19) 
 Gestational weight gain at 26 to 29 weeks0.23 (0.07, 0.39)0.006
Birth head circumference
 Mother’s age at enrollment0.002 (−0.10, 0.10)0.958
 Gestational age at birth0.34 (0.15, 0.54)< 0.001
 Infant’s gender 0.611
  Female (reference group)0 
  Male0.15 (− 0.43, 0.72) 
 Education level 0.046
  Primary school (reference group)  
  Secondary school2.73 (0.49, 4.98) 
  High school3.16 (0.92, 5.39) 
  College / University2.93 (0.65, 5.21) 
 Economic status 0.711
  Low (reference group)0 
  Medium−0.14 (−0.87, 0.59) 
  High0.20 (− 0.70, 1.10) 
 Gestational weight gain at 26 to 29 weeks0.07 (−0.06, 0.19)0.292
Birth weight-for-age z-score
 Mother’s age at enrollment−0.01 (− 0.06, 0.03)0.592
 Gestational age at birth0.22 (0.13, 0.30)< 0.001
 Infant’s gender 0.502
  Female (reference group)0 
  Male−0.09 (− 0.36, 0.18) 
 Education level 0.008
  Primary school (reference group)0 
  Secondary school1.76 (0.70, 2.82) 
  High school1.88 (0.82, 2.94) 
  College / University1.91 (0.82, 3.01) 
 Economic status 0.999
  Low (reference group)  
  Medium0.0001 (−0.34, 0.34) 
  High0.01 (−0.42, 0.44) 
 Energy intake at baseline0.0001 (−0.0003, 0.0005)0.619
 Energy adjusted fat intake−0.005 (− 0.015, 0.005)0.344
 Gestational weight gain at 26 to 29 weeks0.10 (0.04, 0.15)0.001
Birth length-for-age z-score
 Mother’s age at enrollment0.02 (−0.05, 0.09)0.541
 Gestational age at birth0.27 (0.13, 0.40)< 0.001
 Infant’s gender 0.024
  Female (reference group)0 
  Male−0.48 (−0.89, − 0.06) 
 Education level 0.076
  Primary school (reference group)0 
  Secondary school1.79 (0.19, 3.39) 
  High school1.99 (0.39, 3.58) 
  College / University1.67 (0.06, 3.27) 
 Gestational weight gain at 26 to 29 weeks0.12 (0.04, 0.21)0.006
Birth head circumference-for-age z-score
 Mother’s age at enrollment0.002 (−0.08, 0.08)0.965
 Gestational age at birth0.28 (0.13, 0.44)< 0.001
 Infant’s gender 0.251
  Female (reference group)0 
  Male−0.28 (−0.74, 0.20) 
 Education level 0.061
  Primary school (reference group)0 
  Secondary school2.12 (0.29, 3.95) 
  High school2.45 (0.64, 4.27) 
  College / University2.28 (0.43, 4.14) 
 Economic status 0.741
  Low (reference group)0 
  Medium−0.10 (−0.69, 0.50) 
  High0.16 (− 0.57, 0.89) 
 Gestational weight gain at 26 to 29 weeks0.05 (−0.05, 0.15)0.288
  1. aResults were derived from multiple linear regression models. Variables with P < 0.20 in the bivariate analysis as well as mother’s age, gestational age at birth, and infant’s sex were included in the multiple linear regression models