# Table 4 Factors associated with infant growth (defined as length-for-age z-scores) from the univariable and multivariable regression analysis

Model 1 (n = 1134)

Model 2 (n = 1083)

Model 3 (n = 1083)

Model 4 (n = 1083)

n

β (95% CI) 1

β (95% CI) 2

β (95% CI) 2

β (95% CI) 2

Agriculture related factors

Any crop-related work during pregnancy

1122

p = 0.005

p = 0.06

No

644

Ref3

Ref

Yes

478

−0.26 (−0.44; − 0.08)

− 0.19 (− 0.38; 0.01)

Cotton harvesting during pregnancy

1122

p < 0.0001

p = 0.001

No

803

Ref

Ref

Yes

319

−0.39 (− 0.58; − 0.19)

− 0.35 (− 0.55; − 0.14)

Livestock-related work during pregnancy

1122

p = 0.39

p = 0.39

No

483

Ref

Ref

Yes

639

−0.08 (− 0.26; 0.10)

−0.08 (− 0.28; 0.11)

Individual level factors

p = 0.67

p = 0.49

p = 0.57

p = 0.57

Infant age

1134

0.03 (−0.12; 0.19)

0.06 (−0.10; 0.22)

0.04 (− 0.11; 0.20)

0.04 (− 0.11; 0.20)

Sex of the infant

1134

p = 0.11

p = 0.008

p = 0.009

p = 0.009

Male

569

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Female

565

0.13 (−0.03; 0.28)

0.20 (0.05; 0.35)

0.19 (0.05; 0.34)

0.20 (0.05; 0.35)

p < 0.0001

Maternal parity

1128

0.09 (0.05; 0.13)

p < 0.0001

Maternal BMI

1134

0.07 (0.05; 0.09)

p < 0.0001

p < 0.0001

p < 0.0001

p < 0.0001

Maternal height

1134

0.06 (0.05; 0.08)

0.06 (0.05; 0.08)

0.06 (0.05; 0.08)

0.06 (0.05; 0.08)

Household level factors

Maternal education

1128

p = 0.004

p = 0.23

p = 0.22

p = 0.21

Not educated

912

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Primary school

134

0.12 (−0.15; 0.38)

−0.01 (−0.29; 0.27)

−0.00 (−0.28; 0.27)

0.00 (− 0.27; 0.28)

Middle, secondary and higher education

82

0.45 (0.18; 0.72)

0.25 (−0.08; 0.59)

0.26 (−0.07; 0.59)

0.28 (− 0.06; 0.62)

Paternal education

1118

p = 0.08

p = 0.26

p = 0.29

p = 0.21

Not educated

536

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Primary school

210

0.03 (−0.20; 0.26)

0.03 (− 0.19; 0.25)

0.02 (− 0.20; 0.23)

0.04 (− 0.18; 0.26)

Middle, secondary and higher education

372

0.23 (0.02; 0.45)

0.17 (−0.03; 0.37)

0.16 (− 0.04; 0.35)

0.18 (− 0.02; 0.38)

Household SES quintiles

1096

p = 0.04

p = 0.31

p = 0.43

p = 0.22

Poorest

219

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Poor

221

−0.01 (−0.32; 0.30)

−0.02 (− 0.33; 0.29)

−0.02 (− 0.32; 0.28)

0.01 (− 0.29; 0.31)

Middle

220

0.20 (− 0.09; 0.49)

0.09 (− 0.19; 0.37)

0.07 (− 0.21; 0.35)

0.13 (− 0.15; 0.41)

Wealthy

216

0.35 (0.05; 0.65)

0.22 (− 0.09; 0.53)

0.19 (− 0.12; 0.51)

0.28 (− 0.02; 0.58)

Wealthiest

220

0.27 (− 0.02; 0.56)

0.00 (− 0.32; 0.32)

−0.01 (− 0.34; 0.31)

0.06 (− 0.25; 0.36)

Maternal occupation

1114

p = 0.02

Not working

374

Ref

Non-agriculture related work

157

−0.24 (−0.42; − 0.06)

Agriculture related work

583

−0.24 (− 0.53; 0.05)

Cash-aid from BISP

1125

p = 0.24

No

762

Ref

Yes

363

0.10 (−0.07; 0.26)

1. 1Unadjusted coefficients from univariable linear regression, 2Adjusted coefficients from multivariable linear regression (adjusted for infant age, sex of the infant, maternal height, maternal education, paternal education, household socio-economic status), 3Reference