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Table 4 Factors associated with infant growth (defined as length-for-age z-scores) from the univariable and multivariable regression analysis

From: Maternal BMI mediates the impact of crop-related agricultural work during pregnancy on infant length in rural Pakistan: a mediation analysis of cross-sectional data

  Model 1 (n = 1134)Model 2 (n = 1083)Model 3 (n = 1083)Model 4 (n = 1083)
 nβ (95% CI) 1β (95% CI) 2β (95% CI) 2β (95% CI) 2
Agriculture related factors
 Any crop-related work during pregnancy1122p = 0.005p = 0.06  
  No644Ref3Ref  
  Yes478−0.26 (−0.44; − 0.08)− 0.19 (− 0.38; 0.01)  
 Cotton harvesting during pregnancy1122p < 0.0001 p = 0.001 
  No803Ref Ref 
  Yes319−0.39 (− 0.58; − 0.19) − 0.35 (− 0.55; − 0.14) 
 Livestock-related work during pregnancy1122p = 0.39  p = 0.39
  No483Ref  Ref
  Yes639−0.08 (− 0.26; 0.10)  −0.08 (− 0.28; 0.11)
Individual level factors
  p = 0.67p = 0.49p = 0.57p = 0.57
 Infant age11340.03 (−0.12; 0.19)0.06 (−0.10; 0.22)0.04 (− 0.11; 0.20)0.04 (− 0.11; 0.20)
 Sex of the infant1134p = 0.11p = 0.008p = 0.009p = 0.009
  Male569RefRefRefRef
  Female5650.13 (−0.03; 0.28)0.20 (0.05; 0.35)0.19 (0.05; 0.34)0.20 (0.05; 0.35)
  p < 0.0001   
 Maternal parity11280.09 (0.05; 0.13)   
  p < 0.0001   
 Maternal BMI11340.07 (0.05; 0.09)   
  p < 0.0001p < 0.0001p < 0.0001p < 0.0001
 Maternal height11340.06 (0.05; 0.08)0.06 (0.05; 0.08)0.06 (0.05; 0.08)0.06 (0.05; 0.08)
Household level factors
 Maternal education1128p = 0.004p = 0.23p = 0.22p = 0.21
  Not educated912RefRefRefRef
  Primary school1340.12 (−0.15; 0.38)−0.01 (−0.29; 0.27)−0.00 (−0.28; 0.27)0.00 (− 0.27; 0.28)
  Middle, secondary and higher education820.45 (0.18; 0.72)0.25 (−0.08; 0.59)0.26 (−0.07; 0.59)0.28 (− 0.06; 0.62)
 Paternal education1118p = 0.08p = 0.26p = 0.29p = 0.21
  Not educated536RefRefRefRef
  Primary school2100.03 (−0.20; 0.26)0.03 (− 0.19; 0.25)0.02 (− 0.20; 0.23)0.04 (− 0.18; 0.26)
  Middle, secondary and higher education3720.23 (0.02; 0.45)0.17 (−0.03; 0.37)0.16 (− 0.04; 0.35)0.18 (− 0.02; 0.38)
 Household SES quintiles1096p = 0.04p = 0.31p = 0.43p = 0.22
  Poorest219RefRefRefRef
  Poor221−0.01 (−0.32; 0.30)−0.02 (− 0.33; 0.29)−0.02 (− 0.32; 0.28)0.01 (− 0.29; 0.31)
  Middle2200.20 (− 0.09; 0.49)0.09 (− 0.19; 0.37)0.07 (− 0.21; 0.35)0.13 (− 0.15; 0.41)
  Wealthy2160.35 (0.05; 0.65)0.22 (− 0.09; 0.53)0.19 (− 0.12; 0.51)0.28 (− 0.02; 0.58)
  Wealthiest2200.27 (− 0.02; 0.56)0.00 (− 0.32; 0.32)−0.01 (− 0.34; 0.31)0.06 (− 0.25; 0.36)
 Maternal occupation1114p = 0.02   
  Not working374Ref   
  Non-agriculture related work157−0.24 (−0.42; − 0.06)   
  Agriculture related work583−0.24 (− 0.53; 0.05)   
 Cash-aid from BISP1125p = 0.24   
  No762Ref   
  Yes3630.10 (−0.07; 0.26)   
  1. 1Unadjusted coefficients from univariable linear regression, 2Adjusted coefficients from multivariable linear regression (adjusted for infant age, sex of the infant, maternal height, maternal education, paternal education, household socio-economic status), 3Reference