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Table 3 Factors associated with maternal BMI from the univariable and multivariable regression analysis

From: Maternal BMI mediates the impact of crop-related agricultural work during pregnancy on infant length in rural Pakistan: a mediation analysis of cross-sectional data

  Model 1 (n = 1146)Model 2 (n = 1064)Model 3 (n = 1064)Model 4 (n = 1064)
 nβ (95% CI) 1β (95% CI) 2β (95% CI) 2β (95% CI) 2
Agricultural related factors
 Any crop-related work during pregnancy1134p < 0.0001p < 0.0001  
  No650Ref3Ref  
  Yes484−1.59 (−2.10; −1.08)−1.00 (−1.53; −0.47)  
 Cotton harvesting during pregnancy1134p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 
  No812Ref Ref 
  Yes322−1.49 (−2.03; −0.95) −0.88 (− 1.35; − 0.42) 
 Livestock-related work during pregnancy1134p < 0.0001  p = 0.006
  No487Ref  Ref
  Yes647−0.88 (−1.32; − 0.44)  −0.60 (−1.03; − 0.17)
Individual level factors
  p < 0.0001p < 0.0001p < 0.0001p < 0.0001
 Maternal age10960.10 (0.06; 0.14)0.11 (0.07; 0.15)0.05 (0.07; 0.15)0.11 (0.07; 0.15)
  p < 0.0001   
 Maternal parity11400.29 (0.19; 0.39)   
  p < 0.0001   
 Maternal dietary diversity11380.62 (0.43; 0.81)   
  p = 0.22p = 0.41p = 0.49p = 0.49
 Number of days post-partum1140−0.01 (− 0.02; 0.00)−0.00 (− 0.01; 0.01)−0.00 (− 0.01; 0.01)−0.00 (− 0.01; 0.01)
Household level factors
 Maternal education1140p < 0.0001p = 0.0004p = 0.0004p = 0.0002
  Not educated923RefRefRefRef
  Primary school1351.18 (0.29; 2.07)0.71 (−0.06; 1.48)0.70 (− 0.09; 1.49)0.69 (− 0.09; 1.47)
  Middle, secondary and higher education822.53 (1.53; 3.53)1.42 (0.59; 2.26)1.52 (0.65; 2.39)1.49 (0.66; 2.32)
 Household wealth quintiles1108p < 0.0001p < 0.0001p < 0.0001p < 0.0001
  Poorest221RefRefRefRef
  Poor2230.52 (−0.17; 1.23)0.41 (− 0.26; 1.09)0.46 (− 0.21; 1.13)0.54 (− 0.18; 1.27)
  Middle2221.77 (0.97; 2.56)1.37 (0.58; 2.16)1.47 (0.70; 2.24)1.63 (0.79; 2.47)
  Wealthy2211.74 (1.03; 2.451)1.18 (0.53; 1.83)1.24 (0.59; 1.90)1.44 (0.73; 2.15)
  Wealthiest2212.96 (2.23; 3.69)2.33 (1.68; 2.98)2.40 (1.75; 3.05)2.53 (1.86; 3.19)
 Maternal occupation1126p = 0.001   
  Not working377Ref   
  Non-agricultural related work1580.14 (−0.71; 1.01)   
  Agricultural related work591−1.15 (−1.85; − 0.46)   
 Worry about not having enough food in the past 30 days1139p = 0.001   
  No4640.89 (0.39; 1.40)   
  Yes675Ref   
 Eating a limited variety of food in the past 30 days1137p < 0.0001   
  No4241.00 (0.49; 1.52)   
  Yes713Ref   
 Cash-aid from BISP1137p = 0.74   
  No768Ref   
  Yes3690.08 (−0.39; 0.55)   
  1. 1Unadjusted coefficients from univariable linear regression, 2Adjusted coefficients from multivariable linear regression (adjusted for maternal age, number of days post-partum, maternal education, and household socio-economic status), 3Reference