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Table 4 Maternal predictors of neonatal and maternal outcomes in multiple logistic regression analysis stratified by median HbA1c values

From: Potentially modifiable predictors of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus: can they help for future risk stratification and risk-adapted patient care?

 Odds Ratio95% CIP-valueOdds Ratio95% CIP-value
 HbA1c at the 1st GDM booking ≥ 5.5% (37 mmol/mol)HbA1c at the 1st GDM booking < 5.5% (37 mmol/mol)
Cesarean sectionPrepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)1.071.011.150.0311.020.961.090.545
MacrosomiaaGestational weight gain (kg)1.191.061.330.0030.990.851.140.846
LGAbGestational weight gain (kg)1.171.071.300.0010.990.881.110.813
Prematurityd1-h oGTT glucose value (mmol/l)1.371.031.810.0301.100.771.580.590
 HbA1c at the end of pregnancy ≥ 5.5% (37 mmol/mol)eHbA1c at the end of pregnancy < 5.5% (37 mmol/mol)e
MacrosomiaaGestational weight gain (kg)1.111.021.210.013-f-f-f-f
LGAbGestational weight gain (kg)1.091.021.170.0091.250.473.290.658
SGAcPrepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)0.920.860.990.0281.060.881.260.547
Maternal medical treatment requirement0.500.260.980.0443.260.4324.750.254
HypoglycemiagMaternal medical treatment requirement2.521.165.480.0200.950.233.910.944
  1. Multiple logistic regression analyses with all the variables presented in Table 2, adjusted for maternal age, neonatal sex and gestational age. Median HbA1c values are used for stratification. Predictors are only shown if the P value is < 0.05 in the multiple regression analysis in either stratified group. Outcomes are only shown if at least one predictor is found
  2. Abbreviations: HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, CI Confidence interval, GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, BMI Body mass index, oGTT Oral glucose tolerance test, LGA Large for gestational age, SGA Small for gestational age
  3. a birth weight ≥ 4000 g
  4. b LGA: birth weight > 90th percentile for sex and gestational age using the Intergrowth 21st newborn size application tool [30]
  5. c SGA: birth weight < 10th percentile for sex and gestational age using the Intergrowth 21st newborn size application tool [30]
  6. d gestational age < 37 weeks
  7. e this corresponds to the last visit at the GDM clinic
  8. f statistical analysis not possible due to the small amount of outcomes
  9. g capillary or venous glucose value ≤2.5 mmol/l