Skip to main content

Table 2 Maternal predictors of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes in univariate analysis

From: Potentially modifiable predictors of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus: can they help for future risk stratification and risk-adapted patient care?

Presence of neonatal and maternal outcomesMaternal predictorsOdds Ratio95% CIP-value
Cesarean sectionPrepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)1.061.021.090.001
Excess weight gaina1.181.001.380.048
1-h oGTT glucose (mmol/l)1.100.991.230.084
2-h oGTT glucose (mmol/l)1.080.971.200.166
HbA1c at the 1st GDM booking (%/mmol/mol)1.631.042.560.033
Maternal medical treatment requirement1.651.112.440.013
MacrosomiabGestational weight gain (kg)1.111.051.17< 0.001
Excess weight gain)a1.411.101.790.006
Fasting oGTT glucose (mmol/l)1.631.162.290.005
1-h oGTT glucose (mmol/l)1.170.961.420.115
2-h oGTT glucose (mmol/l)1.210.991.470.065
HbA1c at the 1st GDM booking (%/mmol/mol)2.921.426.030.004
HbA1c at the end of pregnancy (%/mmol/mol)c6.451.8222.900.004
Maternal medical treatment requirement2.751.295.860.009
LGAdPrepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)1.041.001.080.064
Gestational weight gain (kg)1.081.041.12< 0.001
Excess weight gaina1.461.231.74< 0.001
Fasting oGTT glucose (mmol/l)1.461.121.910.006
1-h oGGT glucose (mmol/l)1.130.991.290.077
HbA1c at the 1st GDM booking (%/mmol/mol)1.841.083.140.025
HbA1c at the end of pregnancy (%/mmol/mol)c2.841.017.930.047
Maternal medical treatment requirement1.911.143.200.014
SGAePrepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)0.950.811.000.077
Maternal medical treatment requirement0.590.321.080.087
HypoglycemiafExcess weight gaina1.200.961.500.107
Maternal medical treatment requirement2.031.063.880.032
PrematuritygGestational weight gain (kg)0.970.941.010.159
1-h oGTT glucose (mmol/l)1.130.941.360.188
HbA1c at the end of pregnancy (%/mmol/mol)c12.481.8584.130.010
Hospitalization for neonatal complicationGestational weight gain (kg)0.970.931.000.082
Jaundice requiring phototherapyPrepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)1.080.991.180.071
Excess weight gaina1.310.891.950.174
  1. Univariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for maternal age, neonatal sex and gestational age. This table shows the odds ratio for the presence (vs absence) of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes. Only variables with a p-value of < 0.2 are displayed. See Additional file 1: Table S1 for all results
  2. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, oGTT Oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, LGA Large for gestational age, SGA Small for gestational age
  3. a according to the Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines [13]
  4. b birth weight ≥ 4000 g
  5. c this corresponds to the last visit at the GDM clinic
  6. d LGA: birth weight > 90th percentile for sex and gestational age using the Intergrowth 21st newborn size application tool [30]
  7. e SGA: birth weight < 10th percentile for sex and gestational age using the Intergrowth 21st newborn size application tool [30]
  8. f capillary or venous glucose value ≤2.5 mmol/l
  9. g gestational age < 37 weeks