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Table 1 Descriptive maternal and neonatal characteristics

From: Potentially modifiable predictors of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus: can they help for future risk stratification and risk-adapted patient care?

Maternal characteristics
 Age (years)32.8 ± 5.5
 Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)26.1 ± 5.4
 BMI at the 1st GDM booking (kg/m2)30 ± 5.5
 Gestational weight gain (kg)12.7 ± 6.2
 Gestational weight gain until the 1st GDM booking (kg)10.3 ± 5.6
 Excessive gestational weight gaina n(%)172 (30)
 Fasting oGTT glucose value (mmol/l)5.2 ± 0.8
 1-h oGTT glucose value (mmol/l)9.6 ± 2.0
 2-h oGTT glucose value (mmol/l)7.8 ± 1.9
 Gestational age at the 1st GDM booking (weeks)28.6 ± 3.3
 HbA1c at the 1st GDM booking (%)5.5 ± 0.4
  (mmol/mol)37 ± 5
 Gestational age at the end of pregnancyb (weeks)35.8 ± 2.9
 HbA1c at the end of pregnancyb (%)5.6 ± 0.4
  (mmol/mol)38 ± 5.0
 High risk ethnicity n(%)219 (39)
 Cesarean section n(%)212 (38)
 Maternal medical treatment requirement n(%)297 (58)
Neonatal characteristics
 Gestational age (weeks)38.9 ± 1.9
 Male n(%)297 (52)
 LGAc n(%)95 (16.5)
 SGAd n(%)54 (9.4)
 Macrosomiae n(%)45 (7.8)
 Hypoglycemiaf n(%)56 (10.7)
 Prematurityg n(%)47 (8.2)
 Hospitalization for neonatal complication n(%)61 (11.6)
 Jaundice requiring phototherapy n(%)21 (3.7)
 Apgar 5-min < 7 n(%)10 (1.7)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, oGTT Oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, LGA Large for gestational age, SGA Small for gestational age
  2. a according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines [13]
  3. b this corresponds to the last visit at the GDM clinic
  4. c LGA: birth weight > 90th percentile for sex and gestational age using the Intergrowth 21st newborn size application tool [30]
  5. d SGA: birth weight < 10th percentile for sex and gestational age using the Intergrowth 21st newborn size application tool [30]
  6. e birth weight ≥ 4000 g
  7. f capillary or venous glucose value ≤2.5 mmol/l
  8. g gestational age < 37 weeks