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Table 1 Characteristics of participants in the Born in Shenyang Cohort Study (BISCS)

From: Association of sleep quality during pregnancy with stress and depression: a prospective birth cohort study in China

VariablePSQIa scores < 5
N (%) or mean ± SD
PSQI scores ≥5
N (%) or mean ± SD
P
Age (years)  0.801
  < 30240 (20.83)317 (27.52) 
  ≥ 30252 (21.88)343 (29.77) 
Gestational age (weeks)23.48 ± 3.2023.76 ± 3.330.177
BMI (kg/m2)  0.632
  < 23325 (28.21)427 (37.07) 
  ≥ 23167 (14.50)233 (20.23) 
Smoking  0.626
 No465 (40.36)628 (54.51) 
 Yes27 (2.34)32 (2.78) 
Educational level  0.033*
 Junior high school or lower51 (4.43)41 (3.56) 
 Senior high school84 (7.29)97 (8.42) 
 University314 (27.26)457 (39.67) 
 Postgraduate43 (3.73)65 (5.64) 
Annual household income (CNY) b  0.018*
  < 10,00044 (3.82)96 (8.33) 
 10,000–30,00071 (6.16)96 (8.33) 
 30,000–50,000143 (12.41)156 (13.54) 
 50,000–70,000117 (10.16)140 (12.15) 
  > 70,000117 (10.16)172 (14.93) 
Social support scores  0.786
  < 45350 (30.38)481 (41.75) 
  ≥ 4587 (7.55)112 (9.27) 
 Missing valuec55 (4.77)67 (5.82) 
Pregnancy stress scores  < 0.001*
  = 091 (7.90)53 (4.60) 
  > 0401 (34.81)607 (52.69) 
Antenatal depression  < 0.001*
 No431 (37.41)450 (39.06) 
 Yes61 (5.30)210 (18.23) 
Postnatal depression  < 0.001*
 No283 (24.57)317 (27.52) 
 Yes40 (3.47)99 (8.59) 
 Missing valued169 (14.67)244 (21.18) 
  1. a. PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
  2. b. CNY: Chinese Yuan (1 Chinese Yuan = 0.14 US Dollar)
  3. c. Missing values were caused by invalid data or incorrect form completion
  4. d. Missing values were caused by loss to follow-up after delivery
  5. * Statistically significant at α = 0.05