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Table 1 Participant characteristics, overall and by provider advice on physical activity (PA) and nutrition, N = 276

From: Provider advice on physical activity and nutrition in twin pregnancies: a cross-sectional electronic survey

Participant CharacteristicsTotal
N = 276
Advised on PA
N = 208
Not Advised on PA
N = 68
p-valueaAdvised on Nutrition
N = 173
Not Advised on Nutrition
N = 103
p-valuea
Age at delivery, mean years ± SD31.4 ± 4.231.3 ± 4.331.8 ± 3.60.39831.2 ± 4.131.8 ± 4.30.297
Time since delivery, mean months ± SD11.3 ± 7.711.4 ± 7.611.0 ± 8.00.70011.6 ± 7.610.9 ± 7.90.474
Race, n(%)
 White255 (92.4)192 (92.3)63 (92.7)0.927161 (93.1)94 (91.3)0.585
 Otherb21 (7.6)16 (7.7)5 (7.4) 12 (6.9)9 (8.7) 
Marital status, n(%)c
 Married255 (92.4)189 (90.9)66 (97.1)0.117162 (93.6)93 (90.3)0.310
 Unmarried21 (7.6)19 (9.1)2 (2.9) 11 (6.4)10 (9.7) 
Education, n(%)
 Some college or less52 (18.8)39 (18.8)13 (19.1)0.52434 (19.7)18 (17.5)0.416
 Bachelor’s degree119 (43.1)94 (45.2)25 (36.8) 79 (45.7)40 (38.8) 
 Master’s degree83 (30.1)58 (27.9)25 (36.8) 49 (28.3)34 (33.0) 
 Professional or Doctorate degree22 (7.9)17 (8.2)5 (7.4) 11 (6.4)11 (10.7) 
Employment, n(%)
 Employed full time128 (46.4)99 (47.6)29 (42.7)0.30782 (47.4)46 (44.7)0.253
 Employed part time41 (14.9)27 (13.0)14 (20.6) 21 (12.1)20 (19.4) 
 Homemaker107 (38.8)82 (39.4)25 (36.8) 70 (40.5)37 (35.9) 
Household income (n = 266), n(%)
  < $50,00033 (12.4)27 (13.4)6 (9.2)0.58020 (12.1)13 (12.9)0.561
 $50,000–$99,99993 (35.0)66 (32.8)27 (41.5) 61 (37.0)32 (31.7) 
 $100,000–$149,99982 (29.7)63 (31.3)19 (29.2) 46 (27.9)36 (35.6) 
  > $150,00058 (21.8)45 (22.4)13 (20.0) 38 (23.0)20 (19.8) 
Parity prior to twin pregnancy, n(%)
 Nulliparous129 (46.7)108 (51.9)21 (30.9)0.00389 (51.5)40 (38.8)0.042
 Multiparous147 (53.3)100 (48.1)47 (69.1) 84 (48.6)63 (61.2) 
Pre-pregnancy BMI Category, n(%)
 Underweight/normal weightd142 (51.5)114 (54.8)28 (41.2)0.04493 (53.8)49 (47.6)0.556
 Overweight64 (23.2)41 (19.7)23 (33.8) 37 (21.4)27 (26.2) 
Obese70 (25.4)53 (25.5)17 (25.0) 43 (24.9)27 (26.2) 
Use of assisted reproductive technologies, n(%)105 (38.0)77 (37.0)28 (41.2)0.54064 (37.0)41 (39.8)0.642
Smoking in twin pregnancy, n(%)c3 (1.1)2 (1.0)1 (1.5)0.5742 (1.2)1 (1.0)0.999
Alcohol use in twin pregnancy, n(%)c7 (2.5)5 (2.4)2 (2.9)0.6834 (2.3)3 (2.9)0.715
MVPA, median minutes/day ± interquartile rangee,f
 Before pregnancy (n = 262)190.0 ± 255.0200.0 ± 245.0162.5 ± 197.50.089205.0 ± 270.0175.0 ± 225.00.568
 First trimester (n = 262)45.0 ± 175.070.0 ± 190.00.0 ± 87.50.00530.0 ± 180.045.0 ± 125.00.460
 Second trimester (n = 264)0.0 ± 125.015.0 ± 140.00.0 ± 50.00.0150.0 ± 140.00.0 ± 50.00.059
 Third trimester (n = 261)0.0 ± 0.00.0 ± 30.00.0 ± 0.00.0530.0 ± 30.00.0 ± 0.00.298
 Averages across trimesters (n = 273)25.0 ± 113.333.3 ± 130.02.5 ± 50.00.00833.3 ± 138.324.2 ± 63.30.243
Diet quality, mean score ± SDf,g
 Before pregnancy3.3 ± 0.93.3 ± 0.83.4 ± 0.90.7753.3 ± 0.83.3 ± 0.90.085
 First trimester3.1 ± 1.03.1 ± 1.02.9 ± 1.00.1063.2 ± 0.92.9 ± 1.00.012
 Second trimester3.3 ± 0.83.3 ± 0.83.3 ± 0.80.8943.4 ± 0.83.2 ± 0.80.086
 Third trimester3.3 ± 0.93.2 ± 0.93.4 ± 0.90.3693.4 ± 0.93.1 ± 0.90.019
 Averages across trimesters3.2 ± 0.83.2 ± 0.83.2 ± 0.70.5203.3 ± 0.73.1 ± 0.80.003
Twin pregnancy type, n(%)
 Diamniotic/dichorionic221 (80.1)164 (78.9)57 (83.8)0.372135 (78.0)86 (83.5)0.272
 Monoamniotic/dichorionic or monoamniotic/monochorionic55 (19.9)44 (21.2)11 (16.2) 38 (22.0)17 (16.5) 
Pregnancy complications, n(%)h165 (59.8)127 (61.1)38 (55.9)0.450111 (64.2)54 (52.4)0.055
Gestational age at delivery, mean weeks ± SD35.7 ± 2.135.6 ± 2.236.3 ± 1.80.01835.5 ± 2.236.0 ± 1.90.052
Adequacy of GWG, n(%)i
 Below IOM guidelines77 (27.9)58 (27.9)19 (27.9)0.74351 (29.5)26 (25.2)0.222
 Within IOM guidelines129 (46.7)95 (45.7)34 (50.0) 74 (42.8)55 (53.4) 
 Above IOM guidelines70 (25.4)55 (26.4)15 (22.1) 48 (27.8)22 (21.4) 
Twin A birth weight, n(%)j
 Very low or low birth weight131 (47.5)105 (50.5)26 (38.2)0.07993 (53.8)38 (36.9)0.007
 Normal or high birth weight145 (52.5)103 (49.5)42 (61.8) 80 (46.2)65 (63.1) 
Twin B birth weight, n(%)j
 Very low or low birth weight127 (46.2)101 (48.8)26 (38.2)0.13088 (51.2)39 (37.9)0.032
 Normal or high birth weight148 (53.8)106 (51.2)42 (61.8) 84 (48.8)64 (62.1) 
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, GWG gestational weight gain, IOM Institute of Medicine, MVPA moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity, SD standard deviation
  2. aP-value calculated using independent samples t-tests or chi-square tests unless otherwise indicated. Bolded values are statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  3. bBlack or African American (n = 6), American Indian or Alaska Native (n = 3), Asian (n = 7), Pacific Islander (n = 0), and Other (n = 5)
  4. cP-value calculated using Fisher’s exact test
  5. dUnderweight and normal weight combined due to small sample of underweight women (n = 5)
  6. eMVPA minutes/day assessed using the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System physical activity questionnaire
  7. fP-value calculated using Wilcoxon Mann Whitney test
  8. gDiet quality score range 1–5, with higher scores indicating better diet quality
  9. hPregnancy complications include: gestational diabetes, high blood pressure or hypertension, preeclampsia, anemia, twin to twin transfusion syndrome, and hyperemesis gravidarum
  10. iUsing weekly rate of GWG across all trimesters