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Table 1 Characteristics of studies investigating the association between interpregnancy weight change and adverse perinatal outcomes

From: Effect of interpregnancy weight change on perinatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Author & publication date Included in meta-analysis?a Country Study cohort (if applicable) Study period Sample size Inclusion criteria Reported weight Reference group Diagnostic criteria Confounders adjusted for
Bogaerts et al. 2013 [25] Yes Belgium Study Centre for Perinatal Epidemiology database 2009–2011 7897 First two consecutive births Self-reported weight and height ±1 BMI unit GDM: not clarified
PIH: not clarified
Prepregnancy BMI at first pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at first delivery, maternal age, gestational weight gain, complications at first pregnancy (GDM, PIH, induction of labour, CS, malformations and mortality)
Bender et al. 2018 [46] No USA Hospital of Pennsylvania retrospective cohort 2005–2010 537 Singleton livebirth followed by consecutive pregnancy Weight measured at first antenatal visit, self-reported height Stable BMI category GDM: Carpenter–Coustan criteria for the 3-h glucose tolerance test
PIH: Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy
PTB: < 37 weeks
Maternal age, GDM in prior pregnancy, prepregnancy BMI category
Benjamin et al. 2019 [39] No USA Texas linked siblings pair 2005–2012 2481 Birth certificates linked with older live birth, singleton sibling Self-reported weight and height 0 to < 1 BMI units weight gain SGA: Not reported
LGA: Not reported
PTB: Not reported
Prepregnancy BMI at sibling pregnancy, ethnicity, smoking status, gestational weight gain, height, maternal age and education
Chen et al. 2009 [26] No USA Collaborative Perinatal Project 1959–1966 1892 Singleton livebirth followed by consecutive singleton pregnancy Self-reported weight and height − 0.32 to 1.48 BMI units PTB: < 37 weeks Maternal age, research centre, race, smoking status, socio-economic index, marital status and interpregnancy interval
Cheng et al. 2003 [27] No USA Missouri maternally linked cohort 1989–1997 14,114 Second-born SGA infants Self-reported weight and height No change in BMI SGA: <10th percentile Not reported
Crosby et al. 2017 [47] No Ireland Follow up of ROLO study 2007–2015 280 Secundigravida who previously gave birth to macrosomic (> 4.0 kg) baby Weight and height measured at first antenatal visit No interpregnancy weight gain (not further specified) GDM: Not specified No adjusted model available
Ehrlich et al. 2011 [24] Yes USA Kaiser Permanente Northern California 1996–2006 22,351 Women without recognised diabetes before pregnancy, first and second live born singletons Measured by clinician at time of alpha fetoprotein test (mean GA 16.9 weeks) ± 1.0 BMI unit GDM: According ADA criteria Maternal age, race, ethnicity, place of birth, GDM status in first pregnancy, prepregnancy BMI in first pregnancy, gestational age, interpregnancy interval
Getahun et al. 2007 [28] No USA Missouri vital record system 1989–1997 136,884 No history of pre-eclampsia in index pregnancy, delivering second baby. Self-reported weight and height Normal BMI (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) in both pregnancies PE: hypertension and proteinuria beyond 20th week gestation in women normotensive before pregnancy Maternal age, race, education, marital status, prenatal care, smoking status and interpregnancy interval
Getahun et al. 2007 [29] No USA Missouri vital record system 1989–1997 146,227 First two consecutive singleton pregnancies Self-reported weight and height Normal BMI (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) in both pregnancies LGA: ≥90th percentile Maternal age, race, education, marital status, prenatal care, smoking status, alcohol during pregnancy, marital status and interpregnancy interval
Glazer et al. 2004 [36] No USA Washington State Longitudinal Births Database 1992–1998 4102 Non-diabetic women with weight ≥ 200lbs. with ≥2 singleton births. Pre-pregnancy weight from birth certificate, unspecified how measured ± 10 lb GDM: not clarified Maternal age, gestational weight gain in index pregnancy and gestational weight gain during subsequent pregnancy
Hoff et al. 2009 [30] No USA Missouri birth certificates 1995–2004 1035 First two consecutive singleton pregnancies in overweight women Pre-pregnancy weight from birth certificate, unspecified how measured overweight BMI (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) in both pregnancies PIH: not clarified
PTB: < 37 weeks
No adjusted model available
Jain et al. 2013 [31] No USA Missouri vital record system 1998–2005 10,444 First two consecutive singleton pregnancies with a BMI ≥ 30 at index pregnancy. Self-reported weight and height ± 2 BMI units SGA: <10th percentile
LGA:< 90th percentile
Maternal ae, race, martial status, education, socioeconomic status, obesity status in first pregnancy, gestational weight gain, smoking, PE, prenatal care, previous SGA or LGA birth, DM, hypertension, renal or cardiac disease
Knight-Agarwal et al. 2016 [32] Yes Australia Birthing Outcome System 2008–2013 14,875 Women of all parity with subsequent pregnancies. Weight and height recorded at first antenatal visit (mean GA not reported) ± 1 BMI unit GDM: not clarified Maternal age, parity, country of birth, smoking status
Kruse et al. 2015 [33] No Denmark 2009–2013 72 Primiparas with a history of GDM Unspecified how weight was recorded No change in BMI units GDM: ≥9.0 mmol/L blood glucose 2 h after OGTT. No adjusted model available
Lynes et al. 2017 [22] Yes USA NICHD Consecutive Pregnancy Study 2002–2010 46,521 First two consecutive singleton births Unspecified how weight was recorded ± 1 BMI unit GDM: not clarified
PIH: ≥140 mmHg systolic and ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic without proteinuria
PE: ≥140 mmHg systolic and ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic with proteinuria
Maternal race, interpregnancy interval, maternal age, marital status, smoking status, alcohol use during second pregnancy, prepregnancy BMI, complication in first pregnancy (GDM, PE, PIH)
McBain et al. 2016 [34] No Australia Women’s and Childeren’s Health Network 2000–2012 5371 First and second consecutive deliveries. BMI units recorded at first antenatal visit (before GA 15 weeks) ±2 BMI units GDM: not clarified
PTB: not clarified
SGA: <10th centile
LGA: ≥90th centile
Maternal age, socioeconomic status, prepregnancy BMI in first pregnancy, smoking status, race, interpregnancy interval, first pregnancy outcome (GDM, PIH, birth method, LGA and SGA)
Pole et al. 1999 [37] No Canada Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database 1988–1996 19,932 Two or more singletons Not stated ± 3% weight GDM: two abnormal glucose values on a GTT according to Joslin Clinic or O’Sullivan criteria.
PIH: BP ≥90 mmHg diastolic, twice in 24 h
Prepregnancy weight (in lbs) of index pregnancy, gestational age, marital status, previous CS, maternal age, gestational weight gain, GDM in previous pregnancy
Simonsen et al. 2013 [38] No USA Maternally linked Utah birth and fetal records 1989–2007 8468 First three singleton
live births.
Pre-pregnancy BMI from birth certificate (mean GA not reported) BMI category unchanged PTB: ≥20 and < 37 weeks Maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight gain, father on birth record, interpregnancy interval, subtype of previous PTB, gestational age at previous PTB, fetal death or anomaly in history
Sorbye et al. 2017 [23] Yes Norway Medical Birth Registry of Norway 2006–2014 24,198 First and second delivery without GDM in index pregnancy Unspecified how weight was recorded ± 1 BMI units GDM: fasting glucose < 7.0 mmol/l and serum glucose after OGTT ≥7.8 mmol/l Maternal age, country of birth, maternal education, smoking status, interpregnancy interval and year of delivery
Villamor et al. 2006 [20] Yes Sweden Swedish Birth Register 1992–2001 151,025 First and second consecutive singleton births. BMI units recorded at first antenatal visit (mean GA not reported) ± 1 BMI units GDM: ICD-9648 W, ICD-10 O244.
PE: ICD-9642E-642H, ICD-10 O11 and O14.
PIH: ICD-9642D and 642X, ICD-10 O13
LGA: ≥2 SD above mean birthweight
Prepregnancy BMI in first pregnancy, height, interpregnancy interval, maternal age, country of birth, education, year of delivery, smoking status
Wallace et al. 2014 [21] Yes Scotland Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank 1986–2007 12,740 First two consecutive births. Weight and height recorded at first antenatal visit (mean GA not reported) ± 1 BMI units PE: ISSHP definition
PIH: ISSHP definition
PTB: < 37 weeks
SGA: <10th percentile
LGA: ≥90th percentile
Prepregnancy BMI in first pregnancy, height inter-delivery interval, maternal age, year of delivery, smoking status, gestational age and fetal gender at second pregnancy.
Wallace et al. 216 [35] No Scotland Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank 1986–2013 24,520 First two consecutive births and the same perinatal complication in both pregnancies Weight and height recorded at first antenatal visit (mean GA not reported) ± 2 BMI units PTB: < 37 weeks
PE: ISSHP definition
PIH: ISSHP definition
SGA: <10th percentile
LGA: ≥90th percentile
Prepregnancy BMI in first pregnancy, year of delivery, height, inter-delivery interval, maternal age, smoking status, gestational age and fetal sex at first and second pregnancy
Ziauddeen et al. 2019 [19] Yes England Birth registry at Southampton Hospital 2003–2017 15,940 First two consecutive singleton live-birth pregnancies Weight recorded at first antenatal visit; height self-reported ± 1 BMI unit LGA: >90th percentile for GA Baseline BMI, maternal age, education level, infertility treatment, smoking status, employment status, GDM in current pregnancy and interpregnancy interval
  1. aTo ensure a consistent reference group, only studies that employed a reference group of interpregnancy weight change between 1-unit weight loss and 1-unit weight gain were included. GDM gestational diabetes, PE pre-eclampsia, PIH pregnancy induced hypertension, PTB preterm birth, SGA small-for-gestational age, LGA large-for gestational age, BMI body mass index, GA gestational age, CS caesarean section, DM diabetes mellitus