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Table 2 Obstetric risk factors associated with Caesarean section with and without onset of labor compared with vaginal delivery

From: Medical and non-medical reasons for cesarean section delivery in Egypt: a hospital-based retrospective study

Risk FactorCS with onset of laborCS without onset of labor (pre-labor)
OR (95% CI)AOR (95%CI)OR (95% CI)AOR (95%CI)
Maternal age at delivery
 Less than 21RefRefRefRef
 21–341.5 (1.2–1.9)1.7 (1.1–2.5)1.7 (1.3–2.1)1.63 (1.1–2.3)
 35 and above1.8 (1.3–2.5)2.1 (1.3–4.0)2.7 (2.0–3.7)3.9 (2.3–6.5)
Gestational age
  < 37 weeksRefRefRefRef
  ≥ 37 weeks0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.9 (1.3–2.9)0.6 (0.5–0.8)1.05 (0.71–1.56)
Parity and previous CS
 NulliparousRefRefRefRef
 Multiparous with previous CS30.6 (21.7–43.2)13.3 (8.4–20.9)32.7 (23.0–46.4)36.5 (24.2–55.2)
 Multiparous without previous CS0.3 (0.2–0.4)0.2 (0.1–0.3)0.2 (0.2–0.3)0.2 (0.1–0.2)
Multiple Gestation
 Singleton0.8 (0.6–1.2)2.1 (1.0–4.4)0.8 (0.6–1.2)2.1 (1.1–4.15)
 MultipleRefRefRefRef
Fetal Presentation
 CephalicRefRefRefRef
 Other4.0 (2.7–5.8)8.5 (4.7–15.5)3.2 (2.3–4.6)10.7 (6.1–18.7)
Eclampsia
 Yes4.0 (1.9–8.6)5.5 (1.9–15.4)11.9 (6.0–23.7)24.1 (10.1–57.6)
 NoRefRefRefRef
Oxytocin use
 Yes0.4 (0.2–0.7)0.1 (0.06–0.12)
 NoRefRef  
Partograph
 Yes0.4 (0.2–0.8)0.3 (0.1–0.8)
 NoRefRef  
  1. OR odds ratio; AOR adjusted odds ratio