Skip to main content

Table 6 Group differences on physical health (PH-PP) scores during pregnancy (baseline) and postpartum (26-weeks)

From: Measuring physical and mental health during pregnancy and postpartum in an Australian childbearing population - validation of the PROMIS Global Short Form

Characteristic Groups n M (SD) Mean Difference (95% CI) t df p Cohen’s d
Age
Pregnancy     0.11 (−0.07–0.29) 1.21 306 .23 0.17
≥ 35 56 3.90 (0.69)      
< 35 252 3.79 (0.59)      
Postpartum     0.15 (−0.34–0.02) 1.70 236 .09 0.27
≥ 35 46 3.87 (0.63)      
< 35 192 4.03 (0.55)      
Parity
Pregnancy     0.15 (0.01–0.23) 2.11 306 .04 0.24
Nulliparous 125 3.90 (0.62)      
Multiparous 183 3.75 (0.61)      
Postpartum     0.04 (−0.11–0.19) 0.57 236 .57 0.07
Nulliparous 100 4.02 (0.60)      
Multiparous 138 3.98 (0.55)      
Gestation
Pregnancy     0.01 (−0.19–0.12) 0.06 306 .95 0.02
≤ 15 weeks 52 3.82 (0.64)      
> 15 weeks 256 3.81 (0.61)      
Postpartum     0.04 (−0.15–0.23) 0.41 236 .67 0.07
≤ 15 weeks 38 3.96 (0.65)      
> 15 weeks 200 4.00 (0.55)      
Educationa
Pregnancy     0.15 (0.30–0.01) 2.05 306 .04 0.24
Low 97 3.71 (0.62)      
High 211 3.86 (0.61)      
Postpartum     0.13 (−0.29–0.03) 1.60 236 .11 0.23
Low 71 3.91 (0.56)      
High 167 4.04 (0.57)      
Incomeb
Pregnancy     0.23 (0.08–0.37) 3.09 276 .002 0.36
High 160 3.92 (0.60)      
Low 118 3.70 (0.61)      
Postpartum     0.23 (0.14–0.44) 3.73 214 . < .001 0.51
High 129 4.10 (0.52)      
Low 87 3.81 (0.61)      
Country of birth
Pregnancy     0.03 (−0.12–0.18) 0.39 306 .70 0.04
Australia 223 3.82 (0.60)      
Other 85 3.79 (0.64)      
Postpartum     0.05 (−0.11–0.21) 0.58 236 .56 0.08
Australia 175 4.01 (0.54)      
Other 63 3.96 (0.65)      
Obesityc
Pregnancy     0.21 (0.38–0.04) 2.43 281 .02 0.34
Obese 62 3.63 (0.66)      
Non obese 221 3.84 (0.59)      
Postpartum     0.23 (0.41–0.05) 2.5 220 .01 0.40
Obese 51 3.80 (0.59)      
Non obese 171 4.03 (0.56)      
Mental healthd
Pregnancye     0.33 (0.08–0.57) 2.71 50.28e .01 0.49
Yes 43 3.53 (0.75)      
No 265 3.86 (0.58)      
Postpartum     0.22 (0.01–0.42) 2.07 236 .04 0.37
Yes 34 3.81 (0.64)      
No 204 4.03 (0.55)      
Smoker in last 12 months
Pregnancye     0.24 (0.46–0.02) 2.21 64.39e .01 0.36
Smoker 52 3.61 (0.74)      
Non-smoker 256 3.85 (0.58)      
Postpartum     0.23 (0.43–0.03) 2.25 236 .03 0.36
Smoker 37 3.81 (0.66)      
Non-smoker 201 4.03 (0.54)      
Pre-pregnancy drug use
Pregnancy     0.37 (0.60–0.15) 3.32 306 .001 0.60
Drug use 32 3.48 (0.63)      
No drug use 276 3.85 (0.60)      
Postpartum     0.03 (−.22–0.29) 0.22 236 .83 0.05
Drug use 21 3.97 (0.54)      
No drug use 217 4.00 (0.57)      
Planned pregnancy
Pregnancy     0.17 (0.02–0.32) 2.21 229 .03 0.27
Planned 214 3.87 (0.59)      
Unplanned 87 3.70 (0.65)      
Postpartum     0.09 (−0.06–0.25) 1.15 235 .25 0.18
Planned 170 4.03 (0.58)      
Unplanned 67 3.93 (0.54)      
Stress in the last 12 months
Pregnancy     0.19 (0.04–0.35) 2.43 296 .02 0.31
Stress 81 3.68 (0.63)      
No stress 217 3.87 (0.60)      
Postpartum     0.08 (−0.08–0.24) 0.94 233 .35 0.14
Stress 65 3.95 (0.56)      
No stress 170 4.03 (0.56)      
Previous caesarean
Pregnancy     0.07 (−0.13–0.28) 0.67 306 .50 0.12
Yes 39 3.75 (0.51)      
No 269 3.82 (0.63)      
Postpartum     0.03 (−0.19–0.25) 0.25 236 .80 0.05
Yes 29 3.97 (0.62)      
No 209 4.00 (0.56)      
  1. Bolded p and Cohen’s d indicates significant results
  2. aLow education = Secondary school year 12 or less; High education = College apprenticeship/Diploma or University
  3. bLow income = Nil - $1499, High income = $1500 or more;
  4. cObese = BMI ≥ 30, Non obese = BMI < 30
  5. dHistory of mental health disorder
  6. eViolation of assumption of equal variances