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Table 1 The description of characteristics by VSD vs. Controls (N, %)

From: Associations between maternal social support and stressful life event with ventricular septal defect in offspring: a case-control study

 Before Propensity Score MatchingAfter Propensity Score Matching
Controls (n = 262)Cases (n = 202)p valueControls (n = 168)Cases (n = 202)p value
Demographic and obstetric characteristics
Maternal ethnic  0.838  0.759
 Han254, 97.3194, 97.0 162, 96.4194, 97.0 
 Other7, 2.76, 3.0 6, 3.66, 3.0 
Maternal age at delivery  0.915  0.612
 < 35 years old235, 91.1180, 91.4 155, 92.8180, 91.4 
 ≥35 years old23, 8.917, 8.6 12, 7.517, 8.6 
Maternal education  0.470  0.833
 Middle school and below57, 22.153, 26.8 44, 26.753, 26.8 
 High school46, 17.836, 18.2 34, 20.636, 18.2 
 College and above155, 60.1109, 55.1 87, 52.7109, 55.1 
Marital status  0.427  0.296
 Married254, 98.1196, 99.0 162, 97.6196, 99.0 
 Unmarried/divorced/widowed5, 1.92, 1.0 4, 2.42, 1.0 
Residence  0.000  0.537
 Urban163, 62.986, 43.2 78, 46.486, 43.2 
 Suburban /rural96, 37.1113, 56.8 90, 53.6113, 56.8 
Maternal prepregnancy obesity  0.285  0.535
 Yes8, 3.33, 1.6 4, 2.63, 1.6 
 No237, 96.7182, 98.4 151, 97.4182, 98.4 
Multiple births  0.485  0.394
 Yes22, 8.513, 6.6 15, 9.013, 6.6 
 No238, 91.5184, 93.4 152, 91.0184, 93.4 
Infant gender  0.001  0.704
 Male168, 64.197, 48.0 84, 50.097, 48.0 
 Female94, 35.9105, 52.0 84, 50.0105, 52.0 
Family history of CHD  0.074  0.528
 Yes6, 2.311, 5.6 5, 3.04, 2.0 
 No250, 97.7187, 94.4 160, 97.0196, 98.0 
Maternal health indicators and behaviors   
Smoking/drinking  0.823  0.948
 Yes21, 8.916, 8.3 13, 7.716, 7.9 
 No215, 91.1177, 91.7 155, 92.3186, 92.1 
Diabetes/hypertension  0.710  0.438
 Yes33, 12.944, 22.7 15, 8.923, 11.4 
 No222, 87.1150, 77.3 153, 91.1179, 88.6 
Folic acid supplementation  0.044  0.083
 Yes222, 84.7204, 77.9 142, 84.5150, 77.3 
 No40, 15.358, 22.1 26, 15.544, 22.7 
  1. VSD Ventricular septal defect