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Table 5 Crude odds ratio of factors associated with poor perception of caesarean section among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic

From: Maternal perceptions about caesarean section deliveries and their role in reducing perinatal and neonatal mortality in the Upper West Region of Ghana; a cross-sectional study

Maternal characteristics Crude Odds Ratio 95% Confidence interval P-Value
Age of Pregnant woman in years
 19 and below 2.5 1.0–6.5 0.06
 20–24 1.5 0.7–3.1 0.3
 25–29 1.1 0.5–2.1 0.8
 30–34 0.6 0.3–1.3 0.2
 35 and above   
Highest Level of formal Education
 No formal Education 2.2 1.2–4.1 0.01
 Primary School 2.7 1.3–5.7 0.01
 Junior Secondary School 3.0 1.4–6.7 0.004
 Senior Secondary School 2.3 1.2–4.4 0.01
 Vocational / Technical 1.9 0.8–4.6 0.2
 Tertiary   
Occupation
 Unemployed   
 Professional 0.4 0.2–0.7 0.002
 Others example: artisans, traders etc 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.2
Number of children (Parity)
 None   
 One 0.4 0.2–0.7 0.002
 Two 0.4 0.2–0.8 0.01
 Three 0.3 0.2–0.8 0.01
 Four and above 1.0 0.4–2.8 0. 9
Willingness to undergo CS if the need be
 Yes   
 No or undecided 4.4 2.4–8.3 0.0001
Is there any facility you would avoid for child delivery
 No   
 Yes 0.3 0.2–0.60 0.0003
Having traditional or cultural belief on choice of delivery method
 No traditional or cultural belief   
 Have a traditional or cultural belief 0.4 0.2–0.9 0.02
Preference of planned caesarean section versus vaginal delivery
 Prefer planned caesarean section   
 Prefer Spontaneous vaginal delivery 7.3 3.7–14.4 0.0001
Study site: Currently attending Antenatal clinic in a regional versus district hospital
 Regional (Upper West regional hospital, Wa) 2.0 1.3–3.0 0.002
 District (St Joseph’s hospital, Jirapa)   
History of a previous caesarean section
 No previous caesarean section 3.5 2.1–5.7 0.0001
 Had a previous caesarean section   
Preferred mode of delivery
 Caesarean section   
 Vaginal delivery 3.7 1.8–7.8 0.0004