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Table 4 Knowledge and Perception of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic on caesarean section

From: Maternal perceptions about caesarean section deliveries and their role in reducing perinatal and neonatal mortality in the Upper West Region of Ghana; a cross-sectional study

  Previous caesarean section (CS)  
Maternal knowledge and perception Had a Previous CS No history of CS Total P-Value
  N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Study participants 89 (22.0) 315 (78.0) 404 (100.0)  
Heard of caesarean section     0.001
 Heard of caesarean section 88 (100.0) 279 (89.0) 364 (91.5)  
 Never heard of caesarean section 34 (11.0) 34 (8.4)  
Knowledge on why women have caesarean section*   0.001
 Big baby 57 (64.8) 118 (69.6) 245 (68.4)  
 Previous caesarean section 27 (30.7) 69 (25.6) 96 (26.8)  
 Baby not lying well 37 (42.1) 130 (48.2) 167 (46.7)  
 Baby in distress 24 (27.3) 73 (27.0) 97 (27.1)  
 Bleeding 7 (8.0) 28 (10.4) 35 (9.8)  
 Repeated miscarriages 10 (11.4) 11 (4.1) 21 (5.9)  
 Complications of hypertension in pregnancy 11 (12.5) 31 (11.5) 42 (11.7)  
Complications of Diabetes in pregnancy 8 (9.1) 25 (9.3) 33 (9.2)  
 Request of mother 10 (11.4) 74 (27.4) 84 (23.5)  
 Other reasons 19 (21.6) 56 (20.7) 75 (21.0)  
Can a woman give birth vaginally after caesarean section   0.003
 Can give birth vaginally 80 (89.9) 233 (74.2) 313 (77.7)  
 Cannot give birth vaginally 4 (4.5) 14 (4.5) 18 (4.5)  
 I don’t know 5 (5.6) 67 (21.3) 72 (17.9)  
Is there a need for client education on Caesarean section at antenatal clinic 0.001
 There is a need 86 (96.3) 247 (79.4) 333 (83.4)  
 There is no need 3 (3.4) 64 (20.6) 67 (16.8)  
Preference of planned caesarean section versus vaginal delivery   0.001
 Caesarean section 30 (34.5) 12 (3.9) 42 (3.9)  
 Vaginal delivery 53 (60.9) 295 (94.9) 348 (87.4)  
 I don’t know 4 (4.6) 4 (1.3) 8 (2.0)  
Willingness to undergo caesarean section if the need be   0.001
 Would undergo caesarean section 76 (93.8) 205 (67.4) 281 (73.0)  
 Would not undergo caesarean section 2 (2.5) 31 (10.2) 33 (8.6)  
 Undecided 3 (3.7) 68 (22.37) 72 (18.4)  
Reasons for not wanting to have caesarean section*   0.997
 Fear of been mocked 1 (2.0) 21 (8.9) 22 (7.7)  
 Fear of pain during and after surgery 21 (41.2) 114 (48.5) 135 (47.2)  
 Expensive 3 (5.9) 22 (9.4) 25 (8.7)  
 Long recovery time 31 (60.8) 117 (49.8) 148 (51.8)  
 To avoid getting a scar 1 (2.0) 25 (10.6) 26 (9.1)  
 It prevents bonding with baby 6 (2.6) 6 (2.1)  
 Not natural 7 (13.7) 66 (28.1) 73 (25.5)  
 Not God’s wish 20 98.5) 20 (7.0)  
 Blood may be given in the process 25 (10.6) 25 (8.7)  
 May not see my baby 1 (2.0) 5 (2.1) 6 (3.1)  
 Fear of complications 19 (37.3) 86 (36.6) 105 (36.7)  
How do you see a woman who delivered by caesarean section   0.001
 Normal 47 (55.3) 80 (26.0) 127 (32.3)  
 Weak 14 (16.5) 143 (46.4) 157 (40.0)  
 Feel sorry for her 12 (14.1) 73 (23.7) 85 (21.6)  
 God’s wish 12 (14.1) 12 (3.9) 24 (6.1)  
Would you like to have caesarean section (CS) for the following reasons   0.001
 CS delivery is less embarrassing 25 (49.0) 65 (50.8) 90 (50.3)  
 CS allows to choose the day of birth 16 (31.4) 99 (77.3) 115 (64.3)  
 Woman’s body recovers faster with CS 18 (14.1) 18 (10.1)  
 Cs delivery is more convenient 28 (54.9) 17 (13.3) 45 (25.1)  
Is there any traditional or cultural belief that affects your preferred choice of delivery? 0.001
 There is a traditional or cultural belief 14 (15.9) 10 (3.3) 24 (6.1)  
 There is no traditional or cultural belief 74 (84.1) 297 (96.7) 371 (93.9)  
Factors influencing your choice of place of delivery*   0.009
 Place where I attend antenatal clinic 47 (52.8) 106 (34.1) 153 (38.3)  
 Skills of health workers 66 (74.2) 193 (62.1) 259 (64.8)  
 Know a staff member at the health facility 2 (2.3) 8 (2.6) 10 (2.5)  
 Proximity to where I live 8 (9.0) 41 (13.2) 49 (12.3)  
 Other reasons 6 (6.7) 36 (11.6) 42 (10.5)  
Is there any facility you would like to avoid   0.001
 There are facilities I would avoid 26 (29.2) 21 (6.8) 47 (11.8)  
 No facility that I would avoid 63 (70.1) 290 (93.3) 353 (88.4)  
Can having caesarean section (CS) adversely affect your child   0.239
 CS can adversely affect my child 16 (18.0) 69 (22.6) 85 (21.6)  
 CS has no effect on my child 56 (62.9) 161 (52.8) 217 (55.1)  
 Don’t know 17 (19.1) 75 (24.6) 92 (23.4)  
Can having caesarean (CS) section promote child survival   0.001
 CS promote child survival 73 (82.0) 146 (47.1) 219 (54.9)  
 CS does not promote child survival 6 (6.7) 43 (13.9) 49 (12.3)  
 I don’t know 10 (11.2) 121 (39.0) 131 (32.8)  
  1. *multiple response analysis