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Table 4 Associations between prenatal negative life events (NLEs) and adverse birth outcomes stratified by sex: Logistic regressiona

From: Prenatal maternal stress and birth outcomes in rural Ghana: sex-specific associations

NLEs All Infants Girlsb Boysb p-interaction
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Outcome: Low birth weight (LBW)c
 0-2 Ref NA Ref NA Ref NA 0.07
  > 2 2.11 0.89-5.02 4.44 1.11-17.76 0.85 0.25-2.92  
Outcome: Small for gestational age (SGA)d
 0-2 Ref NA Ref NA Ref NA 0.03
  > 2 1.42 0.73-2.76 2.37 0.97-5.79 0.61 0.20-1.81  
Outcome: Any adverse birth outcomee
 0-2 Ref NA Ref NA Ref NA 0.04
  > 2 1.48 0.80-2.78 2.41 1.01-5.75 0.81 0.31-2.15  
  1. a Multivariable model adjusted for [infant sex,] cluster, ethnicity, maternal marriage status, age, weight and height; and family home ownership
  2. b LBW with NLE > 2: Girls N = 24, Boys N = 13; SGA with NLE > 2: Girls N = 38, Boys N = 16; Any adverse birth outcome with NLE > 2: Girls N = 41, Boys N = 22
  3. c LBW defined as birth weight < 2500 g
  4. d SGA defined as birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age
  5. e Any adverse birth outcome defined as an LBW, SGA, or stillborn infant
  6. Text in bold have odds ratios significantly different from 1