Skip to main content

Table 3 Pregnant women’s sanitation access and use with adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes

From: Effects of sanitation practices on adverse pregnancy outcomes in India: a conducive finding from recent Indian demographic health survey

Characteristics Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval
Lower limit Upper limit
Access to toilet
 No access® 1   
 In house 0.78*** 0.762 0.811
 Shared toilet 0.95 0.912 0.988
Availability of water
 No availability® 1   
 Available 0.94** 0.909 0.981
Availability of hand wash
 No availability® 1   
 Available 0.98 0.948 1.009
  1. ***p < 0.01, **p < .05, *p < 0.1