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Table 4 Associations between self-reported fear of partner or ex-partner and post-natal depression, birth outcomes, and breast feeding behaviours in South Western Sydney and Sydney Local Health Districts in 2014 (N = 17,564)

From: Intimate partner violence identified through routine antenatal screening and maternal and perinatal health outcomes

     Complete case Multiple imputation.
n N % OR (95% CI) (a) P value OR (95% CI) (b) P value OR (95% CI) (a) P value OR (95% CI) (b) P value
Postnatal depressive symptom
 Fear of partner or ex-partner
  No 822 28,679 2.9 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Yes 37 394 9.4 3.51 (2.49–4.96) < 0.001 3.53 (2.50–5.00) < 0.001 4.06 (2.94–5.59) < 0.001 4.04 (2.93–5.58) < 0.001
Low birth weight (< 2500 g)
 Fear of partner or ex-partner
  No 1631 35,996 4.5 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Yes 37 497 7.4 1.69 (1.21–2.38) 0.002 1.58 (1.12–2.22) 0.009 1.79 (1.36–2.35) < 0.001 1.65 (1.25–2.17) < 0.001
Gestational age (< 37 weeks)
 Fear of partner or ex-partner
  No 4314 35,823 12.0 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Yes 81 495 16.4 1.43 (1.12–1.82) 0.004 1.38 (1.08–1.76) 0.009 1.52 (1.21–1.91) < 0.001 1.45 (1.15–1.82) 0.002
No early initiation of breast feeding
 Fear of partner or ex-partner
  No 3185 31,166 10.2 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Yes 71 423 16.8 1.77 (1.37–2.29) < 0.001 1.67 (1.28–2.17) < 0.001 1.83 (1.46–2.30) < 0.001 1.63 (1.29–2.06) < 0.001
Non-EBF at discharge.
 Fear of partner or ex-partner
  No 3642 34,288 10.6 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Yes 78 458 17.0 1.73 (1.35–2.21) < 0.001 1.60 (1.24–2.06) < 0.001 1.92 (1.53–2.40) < 0.001 1.69 (1.33–2.13) < 0.001
Non-EBF at first post-natal visit.
 Fear of partner or ex-partner
  No 4672 30,996 15.1 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Yes 83 417 19.9 1.40 (1.10–1.78) 0.006 1.27 (0.99–1.64) 0.060 1.68 (1.36–2.08) < 0.001 1.45 (1.16–1.81) < 0.001
  1. Notes: (a): Unadjusted Odds Ratio (b): Adjusted for maternal age, socio-economic status, Indigenous status, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, body mass index, history of antenatal problems, antenatal depression, and intervention during birth