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Table 1 Equilibrium test of demographic characteristics between the case and control groups

From: High starchy food intake may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a nested case-control study in the Shaanxi province of Northwestern China

  Total Overall adverse pregnancy outcomes χ2 P
N (%) Case(N = 63) Control(N = 237)
Age
  ≤ 25 25 (8.3) 1 (1.6) 24 (10.1) 16.957 0.001*
 26–30 173 (57.7) 31 (49.2) 142 (59.9)   
 31–35 77 (25.7) 19 (30.2) 58 (24.5)   
  > 35 25 (8.3) 12 (19.0) 13 (5.5)   
Residence
 suburb/rural 276 (92.0) 54 (85.7) 222 (93.7) 4.281 0.041*
 city 24 (8.0) 9 (14.3) 15 (6.3)   
Education
 junior high school or below 19 (6.3) 12 (11.1) 12 (5.1) 3.176 0.204
 senior high school or graduate 126 (42.0) 102 (38.1) 102 (43.0)   
 undergraduate or above 155 (50.7) 123 (50.8) 123 (51.9)   
Economic situation a (per month)
 poor level 33 (10.7) 10 (15.9) 23 (11.0) 1.162 0.559
 moderate level 217 (73.7) 44 (69.8) 173 (73.0)   
 good level 50 (15.6) 9 (14.3) 34 (16.0)   
Occupation
 peasants 19 (6.3) 6 (9.5) 13 (5.5) 1.368 0.242
 others 281 (93.7) 57 (90.5) 224 (94.5)   
Smoking
 yes 5 (1.67) 3 (4.8) 2 (0.8) 4.662 0.031*
 no 295 (98.3) 60 (95.2) 235 (99.2)   
Alcohol intake
 yes 8 (2.7) 5 (7.9) 3 (1.3) 8.553 0.003*
 no 292 (97.3) 58 (92.1) 234 (98.7)   
  1. a The poor, moderate and good levels of economic status were defined as the monthly household income per capita were less than or equal to 4000 RMB (581.3 dollars), 4001 to 12,000 RMB (581.4 to 1744 dollars) and more than 12000RMB (1744 dollars), respectively
  2. * p < 0.05