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Table 2 Data from studies assessing outcomes with validated psychological tests like STAI, DRS, K6

From: Psychological and social consequences of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT): a scoping review

Study Test Data source Baseline (at NIPT blood draw or counselling) After receiving tests results Results
Lewis, et al. 2016, UK [20] State anxiety (STAI-6, short form, range 20–80) N = 263 women with either negative or positive NIPT results; questionnaires at baseline (Q1), and 1 month following receipt of results (Q2). STAI-6 mean score (SD) = 40.1 (±15.5). STAI-6 mean score (SD) = 34.3 (±12.6). Decrease of anxiety.
Richmond, et al., 2017, Australia [22] State anxiety (STAI, range 20–90) N = 113 women at baseline (point A); n = 83 women at least 1 week after receipt of results (point C, online); all with negative NIPT result. STAI mean score (SD) in high-risk cFTS vs. low-risk cFTS = 42 (±11) vs.
36 (±11); p < 0.01.
STAI mean score (SD) in high-risk cFTS vs low-risk cFTS = 30 (±11) vs. 29 (±8); p = 0.61. Whilst the high-risk cFTS population had significantly higher levels of state anxiety when they elected NIPT, both groups experienced a statistically significant reduction in state anxiety to similar final levels after they received a negative NIPT result (p < 0.01).
van Schendel, et al., 2017, Netherlands [24] State anxiety (STAI-6, range 20–80) N = 656 women with negative NIPT result. STAI-6 mean score = 44.3. STAI-6 mean score = 28.8. Significant reduction in state anxiety in women with negative NIPT result (p < 0.001).
Lewis, et al. 2016, UK [20] Elevated anxiety (STAI-6, short form, scores ≥50) N = 263 women with either negative or positive NIPT results; questionnaires at baseline (Q1), and 1 month following receipt of results (Q2). Rate of women:
29.9% (n = 174).
Rate of women:
13.7% (n = 36).
Significant decrease in [elevated] anxiety at time of Q2. Of the 36 women whose scores indicated elevated anxiety, 30 had a negative NIPT result, 5 had a positive NIPT result (confirmed through invasive testing) and 1 had an inconclusive result (the fetus was found to be unaffected following invasive testing).
Lo, et al., 2019, Hong Kong [21] Elevated anxiety (STAI-6, scores ≥50) N = 254 women at baseline (Q1); n = 229 women 4 weeks later and after receiving results (Q2). STAI-6 score ≥ 50:
n = 142/254 women (55.9%).
STAI-6 score ≥ 50:
n = 59/229 women (25.8%).
Elevated anxiety was less common after the results had been announced (p < 0.001). Elevated anxiety was not more common among NIPT decliners than acceptors (p = 0.679).
van Schendel, et al., 2017, Netherlands [24] Elevated anxiety (STAI-6, score ≥ 50) N = 26 women with positive NIPT results. (−-) STAI-6 mean score = 54.0. Overall, the 26 women who had received a positive NIPT result for trisomies 21, 18 or 13, or for other trisomies showed high anxiety scores after receiving test-results (M = 54.0). For 11 of 14 women who had had confirmatory invasive testing anxiety levels remained high (M ≥ 50.0) (diagnostic testing confirmed that the fetus had a trisomy in 10/11 women).
van Schendel, et al., 2017, Netherlands [24] Child-related anxiety (subscale of PRAQ-R3, range 4–20) N = 656 women with negative NIPT results PRAQ-R3 mean score = 10.8. PRAQ-R3 mean score = 7.8. Women with negative NIPT result showed a significant decrease in level of child-related anxiety after receiving test results (p < 0.001).
Takeda, et al., 2018, Japan [23] Psychological distress (K6, range 0–24, Japanese version) N = 697 women with negative NIPT-results and low pre-NIPT psychological mental distress (K6). Pre-NIPT K6 scores: cases (n = 29, post-partum K6 high): mean K6 score (SD, range) = 5.0 (±2.4, 0–9); controls (n = 668, post-partum K6 low: mean K6 score (SD, range) = 2.5 (±2.4, 0–9); there was no significant difference between groups. Post-partum K6 scores: cases (n = 29, post-partum K6 high): mean K6 score (SD, range) = 12.8 (±3.6, 10–24); controls (n = 668, post-partum K6 low: mean K6 score (SD, range) = 2.0 (±2.5, 0–9); there was no significant difference between groups. Although women may not feel mental stress before undergoing NIPT, they may develop mental distress post-partum.
Lewis, et al. 2016, UK [20] Decisional regret (DRS, range 0–100, no formal cut-off) N = 263 women with either negative or positive NIPT results; 1 month following receipt of results (Q2). (−-) DRS mean score (SD) = 3.17 (±7.27). Very low level of decisional regret after NIPT with none of the women scoring above the midway point (0% ≥50/100).
Lo, et al., 2019, Hong Kong [21] Decisional regret (DRS, score ≥ 50) N = 223 women 4 weeks after baseline and after receiving results (Q2). (−-) DRS mean score [95% CI]: 15.7 [13.2–18.3]; DRS score ≥ 50: N = 13 womena. Decisional regret (DRS score ≥ 50) was reported by n = 13 of 223 women. Among them were n = 200 NIPT acceptors and n = 23 NIPT decliners.
All n = 13 women who reported decisional regret were NIPT acceptors (n = 12 had negative NIPT results, and n = 1 required invasive prenatal testing for either inconclusive or positive NIPT results).
Decisional regret was more common in women with insufficient (n = 29) vs. sufficient (n = 194) knowledge about NIPT: 5/29 vs. 8/194 (p = 0.016).
  1. aQuote from the article: “All 13 women scoring ≥50 on respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were NIPT acceptors.” This must be a mistake, we assume that the authors refer to DRS