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Table 4 Maternal-infant characteristics according to the presence of aminoglycoside drug residues in breast milk

From: Unexpected drug residuals in human milk in Ankara, capital of Turkey

  Aminoglycoside residues Polymixin residues
Maternal characteristics Negative (n = 62) Positive (n = 28) P Negative (n = 78) Positive (n = 12) p
Age, yrs 32.0 ± 4.4 30.5 ± 3.6 0.132 31.7 ± 4.3 30.2 ± 3.9 0.255
Education> 12 yrs 69.3 71.2 0.842 71.8 58.3 0.335
Working mothers 30.6 25.0 0.584 29.5 25.0 1.000
NSAID use during postpartum period 59.7 39.3 0.073 56.4 33.3 0.136
Antibiotic drug use during postpartum period 41.9 42.9 0.935 41.0 50.0 0.558
Vitamin/mineral use during postpartum period 40.3 50.0 0.391 41.0 58.3 0.260
Any drug use during postpartum period 82.3 85.7 0.769 83.3 83.3 1.000
Maternal cigarette exposure, active or passive 38.7 46.4 0.491 42.3 33.3 0.755
EPDS on admission ≥13 14.5 21.4 0.542 17.9 8.3 0.682
EPDS on admission 6.87 ± 4.65 8.21 ± 6.42 0.265 7.60 ± 5.33 5.25 ± 4.49 0.151
Maternal BMI at birth, kg/m2 28.0 ± 4.8 27.2 ± 3.8 0.420 27.8 ± 4.6 27.7 ± 3.7 0.945
Maternal BMI at visit, kg/m2 26.2 ± 4.4 26.2 ± 3.7 0.993 26.3 ± 4.3 25.8 ± 3.5 0.739
Infant characteristics
 Age, day 59.0 ± 18.1 55.1 ± 18.2 0.346 58.1 ± 18.4 56.0 ± 16.8 0.706
 Infant age < 60 days 33.9 46.4 0.255 37.2 41.7 0.765
 Male sex 40.3 46.4 0.587 41.0 50.0 0.558
 Delivery, Cesarean section 72.6 60.7 0.260 67.9 75.0 0.747
 Birth order> 1 48.4 42.9 0.626 48.7 33.3 0.320
 Gestation lenght < 38 weeks 33.9 25.0 0.400 32.1 25.0 0.747
 Gestational lenght, weeks 38.0 ± 1.3 38.6 ± 1.5 0.056* 38.1 ± 1.4 38.6 ± 1.2 0.254
 Birthweight, WAZ −0.35 ± 1.06 −0.19 ± 1.04 0.494 −0.32 ± 10.2 −0.23 ± 1.26 0.794
 Intensive care requirement 17.7 28.6 0.244 19.2 33.3 0.271
 Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia 38.7 35.7 0.786 38.5 33.3 1.000
 Any underlying disease 16.1 28.6 0.170 35.9 25.0 0.534
 Sleep disorder 30.6 28.6 0.842 29.5 33.3 0.747
 Excessive crying > 2 h 14.5 14.3 0.977 15.4 8.3 1.000
 Inconsolable crying 9.7 3.6 0.428 8.9 0.0 0.587
 Breastfeeding problem 32.3 39.3 0.516 33.3 41.6 0.745
 Exclusive breastfeeding 77.4 85.7 0.362 79.5 83.3 1.000
 WAZ score on admission −0.3 ± 1.3 − 0.2 ± 1.2 0.916 − 0.2 ± 1.3 − 0.3 ± 1.0 0.914
 HCZ score on admission 0.02 ± 1.3 −0.3 ± 1.4 0.251 0.01 ± 1.4 −0.7 ± 1.2 0.092
  1. Values were mean ± SD or %