Skip to main content

Table 3 Maternal-infant characteristics according to the presence of anti-inflammatory drug residues in breast milk

From: Unexpected drug residuals in human milk in Ankara, capital of Turkey

  Anti-inflammatory drug residues  
Maternal characteristics Negative (n = 63) Positive (n = 27) P
Maternal age, yrs 31.4 ± 4.4 31.5 ± 4.0 0.940
Maternal education> 12 yrs 73.0 63.0 0.340
Working in a revenue-generating business 25.4 37.0 0.264
Anti-inflammatory drug use during breastfeeding period 57.1 44.4 0.268
Antibiotic drug use during breastfeeding period 41.3 44.4 0.780
Vitamin / mineral use during breastfeeding period 41.3 48.1 0.546
Any drug use during breastfeeding period 84.1 81.5 0.764
Maternal cigarette contact, active or passive 38.1 48.1 0.374
Edinburgh postpartum depression score ≥ 13 14.3 22.2 0.368
  7.13 ± 4.98 7.67 ± 5.95 0.658
Mother BMI (kg/m2) at delivery 27.9 ± 4.4 27.5 ± 4.8 0.758
Mother BMI (kg/m2) on admission 25.8 ± 3.6 27.1 ± 5.2 0.203
Infant characteristics
 Infant age, days 57.6 ± 17.8 58.3 ± 19.1 0.867
 Infant age < 60 days 39.7 33.3 0.569
 Male sex 41.3 44.4 0.780
 Delivery type, cesarean section 71.4 62.9 0.427
 Birth order> 1 46.6 48.1 0.854
 Gestation time < 38 weeks 27.0 40.7 0.196
 Gestation time, weeks 38.2 ± 1.3 38.1 ± 1.5 0.974
 Birthweight, WAZ −0.32 ± 0.85 −0.27 ± 1.41 0.857
 Intensive care requirement 17.5 29.6 0.195
 Hyperbilirubinemia 31.7 51.9 0.071
 Any underlying disease 22.2 14.8 0.421
 Sleep disorder 27.0 37.0 0.340
 Excessive crying > 2 h 15.9 11.1 0.556
 Inconsolable crying 9.5 3.7 0.670
 Breastfeeding problem 28.6 48.1 0.073
 Exclusive breastfeeding 77.8 85.2 0.421
 WAZ score on admission −0.4 ± 1.2 0.1 ± ±1.4 0.106
 HCZ score on admission −0.2 ± 1.3 0.1 ± 1.4 0.316
  1. Values were mean ± SD or %