Skip to main content

Table 2 Detection rates of drug residues in mother’s milk according to their groups and nomenclature

From: Unexpected drug residuals in human milk in Ankara, capital of Turkey

Residue drug groups n (%) Positive residue drugs Residues, not found in breast milk
    n (%)
Antiinflammatory 27 (30.0) 5-OH Flunixin 2 (2.2) Phenylbutazone
Chlormadinone 1 (1.1)  
Metamizole 1 (1.1)  
Tolfenamic acid 27 (30.0)  
Meloxicam 1 (1.1)  
Diaminopirimidine 1 (1.1) Baquiloprim 1 (1.1)  
Trimethoprim 1 (1.1)  
Aminoglycoside 28 (31.1) Spectinomycin 27 (30.0) Tobramycin
Streptomycin 1 (1.1) Apramycin
Neomisin 1 (1.1) Hygromycin B
Gentamisin 1 (1.1) Kanamycin
Quinolone 85 (94.4) Quinoloneb 85 (94.4)  
Lincosamide 3 (3.3) Lincomycin 3 (3.3) Pirlimycin
Sulphonamide 2 (2.2) Sulphonamides 1 (1.1) Sulphapyridine,
Sulphamethazine 1 (1.1) Sulphaguanidine
Dapsone 1 (1.1)  
Macrolide 1 (1.1) Tylosin 1 (1.1) Erythromycin, Spiramycin
Penicillin 84 (93.3) Beta-Lactamsa 84 (93.3)  
Corticosteroid 3 (3.3) Methylprednisolone 3 (3.3) Dexamethasone
Amphenicol 2 (2.2) Amphenicol 2 (2.2)  
Aminocoumarin 1 (1.1) Novobiocin 1 (1.1)  
Antiparasitic 3 (3.3) Nitroxynil 3 (3.3)  
Polymixin 12 (13.3) Polymixin 12 (13.3)  
Naphthalene ringed ansamycins 0 (0.0)    Rifaximin
Streptogramins 0 (0.0)    Virginiamycin
Growth Promoter 0 (0.0)    Ractopamine
Polypeptide 0 (0.0)    Bacitracin
Tetracycline 0 (0.0)    Tetracycline
Cefalosporin 0 (0.0)    Cefalexin, Cefuroxime
  1. a“Beta-lactams assay” includes “penicillin compounds (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V and nafcillin) and cephalosporin compounds (cefacetril, cefapirin, cefalonium, cefazolin, ceforperazone, cefquinome and ceftiofur)” with detection limit of 0.35–25.00 ppb
  2. b“Quinolones assay” includes “ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloaxacin and oxolinic acid” with detection limit of 12.5–22.5 ppb