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Table 1 General characteristics of mother-infant pairs, n = 90

From: Unexpected drug residuals in human milk in Ankara, capital of Turkey

Maternal characteristics   Infant characteristics  
Age, yrs 31.5 ± 4.2 Gestational duration, weeks 38.2 ± 1.4
Education level, > 12 yrs 63 (70.0) Birth type, caesarean delivery 62 (68.9)
Occupation, Working 26 (28.9) Birth order, first child 42 (46.7)
Smoking exposure during lactational period   Infants’ age, days, 57.8 ± 18.1
 No smoking 53 (58.9) Gender, Male 38 (42.2)
 Second-hand smoking 28 (31.1) Intensive care requirement after birth 19 (21.1)
 Self smoking 9 (10.0) Jaundice at the first week, presence 34 (37.8)
Any maternal health problem 31 (34.4) Infant health problem 18 (20.0)
Drug usage during gestational period
 Vitamin/mineral usage 75 (83.3)   
 Antiinflamatuar usage 29 (32.2)   
 Antibiotic usage 24 (26.7)   
 Any drug usage 86 (95.6)   
Drug usage during lactational period   Feeding type, exclusive breast feeding 72 (80.0)
 Vitamin/mineral usage 39 (43.3) Breastfeeding problems 31 (34.4)
 Antiinflamatuar usagea 48 (53.3) Sleeping problems 27 (30.0)
 Antibiotic usagea 38 (42.2) Crying duration≥2h 13 (14.4)
 Any drug usage 75 (83.3) Inconsolable crying 7 (7.8)
Edinburg postpartum depression score 7.3 ± 5.3   
Anthropometric values
Weight gain during pregnancy, kg 15.2 ± 5.4 Birth weight, g 3161 ± 471
Weight at delivery, kg 73.9 ± 11.6 WAZ at birh −0.30 ± 1.05
Height on admission, cm 163.3 ± 5.7 HCZ on admission −0.09 ± 1.36
BMI (kg/m2) at delivery 27.8 ± 4.5 WAZ on admission −0.24 ± 1.25
BMI (kg/m2) on admission 26.2 ± 4.2 HAZ on admission (n = 70) −0.46 ± 1.52
BMI change from birth to admission −1.56 ± 3.20 BAZ on admission (n = 70) −0.02 ± 1.14
  1. Values were mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. aonly for the first 5–10 days after delivery. On admission, mothers had stated the intake of neither antibiotics nor NSAID for the last 10 days