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Table 4 Delivery outcomes and negative effects (N = 42)

From: Oxytocin levels in low-risk primiparas following breast stimulation for spontaneous onset of labor: a quasi-experimental study

  Intervention Control p-value
(n = 22) (n = 20)
n % n %
Gestational weeks at delivery 40.0 [0.7] 40.0 [0.7] 0.771
Spontaneous onset of labor 18 (81.8) 16 (80.0) 1.000
Induced labor 4 (18.2) 4 (20.0)
Onset of labor within 72 h after and within intervention 5 (22.7) 6 (30.0) 0.734
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal delivery 20 (90.9) 16 (80.0) 0.489
 Instrumental delivery 2 (9.1) 3 (15.0)
 Cesarean section 0 (0.0) 1 (5.0)
Weak uterine contractions 5 (22.7) 8 (40.0) 0.320
Labor augmentation 3 (13.6) 7 (35.0) 0.214
No synthetic oxytocin used during labor 7 (31.8) 11 (55.0) 0.212
Duration from intervention to delivery in patients who completed 3 days without induction of labor (Intervention, n = 13; Control, n = 12).
 First stage (minutes) 734 [497.1] 816 [663.9] 0.650
 Second stage (minutes) 118 [179.0] 153 [241.4] 0.599
 Third stage (minutes) 4 [2.9] 3 [1.4] 0.052
 Duration of labor (hours) 14.2 [8.6] 16.9 [12.4] 0.441
Premature rupture of membranes 5 (22.7) 3 (15.0) 0.700
Uterine hyperstimulation 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Bleeding
 Within the 2 h after birth (g): M [SD] 47 [22.2] 60 [39.4] 0.208
 Total bleeding volume (g): M [SD] 317 [184.1] 450 [270.2] 0.074
 Postpartum hemorrhage 3 (13.6) 7 (35.0) 0.152
Apgar Score at 1 min (<  7) 0 (0.0) 1 (5.0) 0.476
Apgar Score at 5 min (<  7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Birth weight (in grams) 3090 [287] 3077 [277] 0.881
NICU admission immediately after birth 1 (4.5) 1 (5.0) 1.000
Meconium-stained liquor (≥ 2+) 1 (4.5) 4 (20.0) 0.174
Stillbirth 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  1. p-value: using the two-tailed t-test, χ2 test, or Fisher’s exact test of comparisons between the intervention group and the control group.[ ] shows standard deviation; ( ) shows %
  2. NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit