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Table 2 Bleeding characteristics at time of inclusion of women with persistent postpartum haemorrhage, as compared with women with different cut-off values for transfused units of packed red blood cells (RBC) within 24 h following birth. Women with higher numbers of RBCs are included in cohorts of women with fewer units transfused

From: Clinical characteristics of women captured by extending the definition of severe postpartum haemorrhage with ‘refractoriness to treatment’: a cohort study

Bleeding characteristic Persistent postpartum haemorrhage (N = 1260) ≥4 units RBC (N = 845) ≥6 units RBC (N = 325) ≥8 units RBC (N = 176) ≥10 units RBC (N = 115)
Time from birth till inclusion of patients – no. (%)
 < 1 h 820 (65.1) 37 (4.4) 9 (2.8) 4 (2.3) 2 (1.7)
 ≥ 1–2 h 251 (19.9) 96 (11.4) 41 (12.6) 11 (6.3) 3 (2.6)
 ≥ 2 h 189 (15.0) 712 (84.3) 275 (84.6) 161 (91.5) 110 (95.7)
 Unknown 1 (0.5)
Mode of birth - no. (%)
 Vaginal 967 (76.7) 612 (72.4) 207 (63.7) 100 (56.8) 62 (53.9)
 Caesarean 285 (22.6) 228 (27.0) 116 (35.7) 75 (42.6) 53 (46.1)
 Unknown 8 (0.6) 5 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.6)
Cause of haemorrhage – no. (%)
 Uterine atony 805 (63.9) 539 (63.8) 214 (65.8) 107 (60.8) 66 (57.4)
 Retained placenta 219 (17.4) 135 (16.0) 29 (8.9) 18 (10.2) 13 (11.3)
 Abnormally invasive placenta 113 (9.0) 71 (8.4) 26 (8.0) 17 (9.7) 13 (11.3)
 Placenta previa 12 (1.0) 13 (1.5) 6 (1.8) 4 (2.3) 3 (2.6)
 Placental abruption 12 (1.0) 18 (2.1) 11 (3.4) 5 (2.8) 1 (0.9)
 Surgical cause 92 (7.3) 66 (7.8) 36 (11.1) 22 (12.5) 16 (13.9)
 Pre-existent coagulation disorder 7 (0.6) 3 (0.4) 3 (0.9) 3 (1.7) 3 (2.6)
Blood loss – no. (%)
 < 1 L 673 (53.4) 7 (0.8) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.6)
 ≥ 1-2 L 407 (32.3) 82 (9.7) 15 (4.6) 3 (1.7) 2 (1.7)
 ≥ 2 L 180 (14.3) 756 (89.5) 309 (95.1) 172 (97.7) 113 (98.3)
Bleeding rate – no. (%)
 < 1 L/hr. 457 (36.3) 689 (81.5) 24 (74.2) 127 (72.2) 80 (69.6)
 ≥ 1-2 L/hr. 316 (25.1) 100 (11.8) 56 (17.2) 34 (19.3) 21 (18.3)
 ≥ 2 L/hr. 481 (38.2) 41 (4.9) 23 (7.1) 12 (6.8) 12 (10.4)
 Unknown 6 (0.5) 15 (1.8) 5 (1.5) 3 (1.7) 2 (1.7)
Signs of haemorrhagic shock – no. (%)
 No 344 (27.3) 85 (10.1) 23 (7.1) 9 (5.1) 6 (5.2)
 Yes 580 (46.0) 722 (85.4) 288 (88.6) 159 (90.3) 104 (90.4)
 Unknown 336 (26.7) 38 (4.5) 14 (4.3) 8 (4.5) 5 (4.3)