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Table 4 Factors associated with GDM among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gondar town public health facilities, Northwest Ethiopia: March 2018–January 2019

From: Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated factors among women attending antenatal care at Gondar town public health facilities, Northwest Ethiopia

Variables Non-GDM n (%) GDM n (%) COR (95% CI) P -value AOR (95% CI) a P value
Maternal age (years)
 < 25 304 (94.1) 19 (5.8) 1   1  
 25–29 335 (91.4) 31 (8.5) 1.48 (0.82, 2.68) 0.194 0.99 (0.32, 3.12) 0.994
 30–34 168 (78.5) 46 (21.5) 4.38 (2.49, 7.72) < 0.001 2.24 (0.73, 6.83) 0.156
 ≥ 35 89 (71.8) 35 (28.2) 6.29 (3.43, 11.54) < 0.001 3.05 (0.88, 10.51) 0.077
Marital status
 Married 831(87.9) 114(12.1) 1   1  
 Single and othersb 65(79.3) 17(20.7) 1.91 (1.08, 3.37) 0.026 2.04 (0.72, 5.78) 0.179
Educational level
 Not formal education 168 (84) 32 (16.0) 1   1  
 Primary education 194 (84.7) 35 (15.3) 0.95 (0.56, 1.60) 0.838 1.82 (0.75, 4.43) 0.184
 Secondary education and above 534 (89.3) 64 (10.7) 0.63 (0.40, .99) 0.048 0.90 (0.39, 2.11) 0.815
Employment status
 Unemployed 556 (89.5) 65 (10.5) 1   1  
 Employed 340 (83.7) 66 (16.3) 1.66 (1.15, 2.40) 0.007 1.44 (0.71, 2.91) 0.309
MUAC
 MUAC < 28 cm 767 (90) 85 (10) 1   1  
 MUAC ≥28 cm 129 (73.7) 46 (26.3) 3.22(2.15, 4.82) < 0.001 2.25 (1.18, 4.26) 0.013
 SBP (mmHg) 111.57 ± 11.31 115.46 ± 15.01 1.025(1.01, 1.04) 0.001 1.024 (0.99, 1.06) 0.132
 DBP(mmHg) 71.60 + 9.882 74.05 ± 12.09 1.022 (1.01, 1.04) 0.011 0.99(0.96, 1.03) 0.757
Anemic status
 Normal (Hb ≥ 11 g/dl) 769 (88.0) 105 (12.0) 1   1  
 Anemia (Hb < 11 g/dl) 113 (83.7) 22 (16.3) 1.43 (0.86, 2.35) 0.164 1.73 (0.81, 3.70) 0.160
Level of physical activity
 High 299 (92.9) 23 (7.1) 1   1  
 Moderate 429 (93.3) 31 (6.7) 0.94 (.054, 1.64) 0.827 0.613 (0.27, 1.38) 0.238
 Low 168 (68.6) 77 (31.4) 5.96 (3.60, 9.85) < 0.001 3.36 (1.60, 7.04) 0.001
Dietary diversity status
 Adequate (≥5) 461 (92.8) 36 (7.2) 1   1  
 Inadequate (< 5) 435 (82.1) 95 (17.9) 2.80 (1.86, 4.19) < 0.001 1.90 (1.02, 3.53) 0.042
Family history of diabetes
 No 862 (89.3) 103 (10.7) 1   1  
 Yes 34 (54.8) 28 (45.2) 6.89 (4.02, 11.83) < 0.001 4.03 (1.57, 10.35) 0.004
Parity
 Nullipara 449 (89.1) 55 (10.9) 1   1  
 Primipara 243 (87.7) 34 (12.3) 1.14 (0.72, 1.80) 0.567 0.77 (0.28, 2.16) 0.626
 Multipara 204 (82.9) 42 (17.1) 1.68 (1.09, 2.60) 0.019 0.99 (0.34, 2.81) 0.987
History of macrocosmic baby
 No 453 (87.6) 64 (12.4) 1 1 1  
 Yes 49 (69) 22 (31) 3.18 (1.80, 5.60) < 0.001 1.54 (0.70, 3.37) 0.283
History of abortion
 No 368 (87.2) 54 (12.8) 1   1  
 Yes 134 (80.7) 32 (19.3) 1.63 (1.01, 2.63) 0.047 1.014 (0.51, 2.03) 0.968
History of still birth
 No 476 (86.5) 74 (13.5) 1   1  
 Yes 26 (68.4) 12 (31.6) 2.97 (1.44, 6.14) 0.003 1.42 (0.48, 4.15) 0.526
Previous GDM
 No 477 (89.3) 57 (10.7) 1   1  
 Yes 25 (46.3) 29 (53.7) 9.71 (5.32, 17.71) < 0.001 5.82 (2.57, 13.18) < 0.001
Antenatal depression
 No 839 (89.4) 99 (10.6) 1   1  
 Yes 57 (64) 32 (36) 4.76 (2.94, 7.69) < 0.001 4.12 (1.85, 9.20) 0.001
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, MUAC mid-upper arm circumference, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, 1 Reference
  2. aAdjusted for factors including maternal age, marital status, educational level, employment status, MUAC, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, anemia, level of physical activity, dietary diversity status, family history of diabetes, parity, history of macrocosmic baby, history of abortion, history of still birth, previous GDM and antenatal depression
  3. bDivorced or widowed