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Table 2 Risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)

From: Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in the middle belt of Ghana

  VVC OR (Unadjusted) P-value for OR AOR (Adjusted) P-value for AOR
Yes n (%) No n (%)
Age group
 < 19 25 (32.1) 53 (67.9) 1.0   
 20–34 158 (37.4) 264 (62.6) 1.27 (0.76–2.12) 0.365
 35+ 32 (36.0) 57 (64.0) 1.19 (0.63–2.26) 0.596
Marital Status
 Married 149 (36.9) 255 (63.1) 1.0   
 Single 35 (36.1) 62 (63.9) 0.97 (0.61–1.53) 0.884
 Cohabiting 31 (35.2) 57 (64.8) 0.93 (0.57–1.50) 0.770
Religion
 Christians 143 (36.9) 245 (63.1) 1.0   
 Muslim 63 (34.1) 122 (65.9) 0.88 (0.63–1.28) 0.514
 Others 9 (56.3) 7 (43.8) 2.20 (0.80–6.04) 0.125
Education
 No education 80 (37.9) 131 (62.1) 1.0   
 Primary & JHS 112 (36.2) 197 (63.8) 0.93 (0.65–1.33) 0.699
> SHS 23 (33.3) 46 (66.7) 0.82 (0.46–1.45) 0.494
Occupation
 Unemployed 73 (32.7) 150 (67.3) 1.0   
 Employed 142 (38.8) 224 (61.2) 0.77 (0.54–1.09) 0.139
Trimester
 First 30 (36.1) 53 (63.9) 1.0   
 Second 110 (34.8) 206 (65.2) 0.94 (0.57–1.56) 0.821
 Third 75 (39.5) 115 (60.5) 1.15 (0.67–1.96) 0.603
Gravidae
 Primigravidae 46 (31.9) 96 (68.1) 1.0   
 2–4 gravidae 123 (39.2) 191 (60.8) 1.37 (0.90–2.08) 0.137
 5 gravidae 46 (35.1) 85 (64.9) 1.15 (0.70–1.90) 0.578
History of spontaneous abortion
 No 176 (35.8) 315 (64.2) 1.0   
 Yes 39 (39.8) 59 (60.2) 1.18 (0.76–1.85) 0.459
Contraceptive use before Pregnancy
 No 152 (36.0) 270 (64.0) 1.0   
 Yes 63 (37.7) 104 (62.3) 1.07 (0.74–1.56) 0.698
Douche
 No 136 (36.7) 235 (63.3) 1.0   
 Yes 79 (36.2) 139 (63.8) 0.9 (0.69–1.39) 0.919
Antibiotic use
 No 202 (35.9) 361 (64.1) 1.0   
 Yes 13 (50.0) 13 (50.0) 1.79 (0.83–3.93) 0.149
Sex Frequency
 < 2 per week 161 (38.3) 259 (61.7) 1.0   
> 2 per week 54 (32.0) 115 (68.1) 0.76 (0.52–1.10) 0.146
Trichomoniasis
 No 211 (36.3) 370 (63.7) 1.0   
 Yes 4 (50.0) 4 (50.0) 1.75 (0.43–7.08) 0.430