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Table 5 Final Late/No Prenatal Care Utilization Linear Regression Models for Baseline, Period 1 and Period 2 (controlled for 102 LHD Clusters)

From: Social determinants of health and disparities in prenatal care utilization during the Great Recession period 2005-2010

  Baseline Period n = 270,775 Period 1
n = 195,921
Period 2
n = 178,254
Coef.* 95% C.I. Coef. 95% CI Coef.   95% C.I.
Maternal Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White referent referent    referent   
 Hispanic White 0.020* 0.000–0.039 0.007   −0.010- 0.024 0.009   −0.005- 0.022
 Non-Hispanic Black 0.032* 0.020–0.045 0.037*   0.025–0.049 0.037*   0.027–0.046
Age
  < 14 years 0.259* 0.229–0.289 0.261*   0.224–0.297 0.262*   0.201–0.323
 15–19 years 0.097* 0.084–0.110 0.091*   0.069–0.112 0.087*   0.075–0.098
 20–24 years 0.040* 0.031–0.048 0.050*   0.038–0.060 0.039*   0.031–0.048
 25–29 years 0.009* 0.004–0.013 0.011*   0.005–0.018 0.011*   0.006–0.016
 30–34 years referent   referent    referent   
 35–39 years 0.002 −0.002-0.007 0.005   − 0.000- 0.010 0.010*   0.001–0.019
 40+ years 0.049* 0.032–0.066 0.045*   0.032–0.058 0.029*   0.014–0.044
Marital Status
 Married referent   referent    referent   
 Not Married 0.042* 0.035–0.049 0.042*   0.031–0.053 0.032*   0.024–0.040
Foreign-Born Status
 Not Foreign-Born referent   referent    referent   
 Foreign-Born 0.034* 0.014–0.055 0.028*   0.012–0.044 0.022*   0.009–0.035
Education
 Less than HS education 0.084* 0.064–0.104 0.079*   0.059–0.099 0.061*   0.046–0.076
 HS diploma or GED 0.021* 0.012–0.029 0.016*   0.005–0.026 0.020*   0.012–0.029
 Some College referent   referent    referent   
 Age < 20; ed. level not assessed 0.056* 0.041–0.070 0.055*   0.036–0.073 0.039*   0.023–0.056
Insurance Payer
 Medicaid 0.100 0.087–0.114 0.113*   0.097–0.129 0.099*   0.085–0.113
 Private Insurance referent   referent    referent   
 Self-Pay/ Uninsured 0.155 0.115–0.195 0.173*   0.140–0.205 0.138*   0.102–0.173
 Other (Indian Health Service, CHAMPUS, etc.) 0.057 0.017–0.096 0.057*   0.011–0.103 0.070*   0.039–0.100
 Unknown 0.038 −0.008- 0.083 0.054   −0.003- 0.111 0.060*   0.016–0.105
WIC Enrollment Status
 Yes WIC −0.012* − 0.022- -0.002 − 0.012*   − 0.023- 0.001 −0.010   −0.021 − 0.002
No WIC referent   referent    referent   
 Unemploy-ment Rate -0.002 −0.018- 0.014 −0.000   −0.003-0.002 − 0.001   − 0.010-0.007
Community Poverty
 Top 1/3 Poor LHJs −0.031 −0.065 -0.004 − 0.045*   − 0.086- -0.003 −0.056*   −0.096- -0.015
 Bottom 2/3 (Non) Poor LHJs referent   referent    referent   
 Median HH Income 7.55E-07 −1.75 E-06- 3.26 E-06 1.53E- 06 1 −8.13E- 07 - 3.88E- 06 8.83E-07   −0.000- 0.000
Core Based Statistical Area
 Metropolitan referent   referent    referent   
Micropolitan 0.010 −0.021- 0.041 0.003   −0.033- 0.039 0.019   −0.013- 0.050
 Rural −0.016 −0.054 − 0.023 -0.023   − 0.065- 0.020 −0.026   −0.073- 0.022
 Gini Coefficient 0.025 −0.442- 0.493 −0.184 0.246 −0.672- 0.304 − 0.152 0.228 − 0.604- 0.301
 Percent Republican 0.001* 0.0004- 0.002*   0.0003- 0.002*   0.0005–0.0031
 Per Capita MDs (GPs and FM) −1.498* −2.959-
−0.036
−0.949   −2.213- 0.316 −0.895   −2.265-0.475
State
 Florida 0.056 −0.011- 0.122 0.054   −0.006- 0.114 0.047   −0.013-0.106
 Washington referent   referent    referent   
 LHD Per Capita 2MCH Expenditures 0.0012 −0.0007- 0.0030 0.0019*   0.0002–0.0036 0.0025*   0.0009–0.0042
 LHD Per Capita WIC Expenditures −0.0010 −0.0067-0.0046 − 0.0014   − 0.0065- 0.0038 −0.0022   −0.0077- 0.0033
  1. *P < .05 was used to establish statistical significance and is indicated with an asterisk (*)
  2. Abbreviations (in order of appearance in table from top to bottom): Late/No PNC: late (after first trimester) or non-entry to prenatal care; LHD: Local health department; Prob: probability; SE: standard error; Conf.: confidence (for confidence interval); HS: High school; GED: General education diploma; Ed: education; CHAMPUS: Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniform Services; WIC: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; LHJ: Local health jurisdiction; HH: household; MD: medical doctor; GP: general practitioner; FM: family medicine;