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Table 3 Comparison of demographic and perinatal characteristics: study population for FL, WA, total study population, and United States (n/% unless otherwise indicated) by timing of entry to prenatal care utilization (for entire study period)a,l

From: Social determinants of health and disparities in prenatal care utilization during the Great Recession period 2005-2010

  FL Late Entry n = 100,471 (17.79%)
n (%)
FL Non-Late Entry n = 457,510 (82.2%)
n (%)
WA Late Entry n = 40,037 (18.87%)
n (%)
WA Non-Late Entry n = 169,938 (81.12%)
n (%)
Total Late Entry n = 140,508 (18.30%)
n (%)
Total Non-Late Entry n = 627,448 (81.70%)
n (%)
U.S. (2008)b
n = 1,703,921 (first births unless otherwise indicated)
Mother’s Age
 Mother’s Age, years (mean, SD) 22.67 (SD 5.91) 25.78 (SD 6.11) 23.46 (SD 5.70) 26.40 (SD 5.97) 22.90(SD = 5.86)t-test: p = 0.00 25.95 (SD = 6.08)t-test: p = 0.00 Total births: 25.1(−-)c
 Number and proportion of Teenage Births (< 19) as component group of total study populationd 35,443 (35.28) 75,930 (16.60) 11,211 (27.99) 22,762 (13.39) 46,654 (33.20) 98,692 (15.73) 354,897 (20.8)b
Mother’s Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 48,306 (15.24) 268,648 (84.76) 22,117 (16.15) 114,856 (83.85) 70,423 (15.51) 383,504 (84.49) 952,478 (55.90)b
 Hispanic Whitee 16,215 (24.31) 50,483 (75.69) 8231 (27.77) 21,408 (72.23) 24,446 (25.38) 71,891 (74.62) 360,966 (21.18)b
 Non-Hispanic Black 26,975 (24.75) 82,009 (75.25) 1998 (25.87) 5725 (74.13) 29,205 (24.83) 87,734 (75.17) 244,340 (14.34)b
Maternal SES
 Foreign-Born Motherf 32,233 (32.08) 135,358 (29.58) 6518 (16.27) 25,177 (14.81) 38,751 (27.58) 160,535 (25.58) Total births: --(24.00)g
 Married (Mother) 28,598 (28.47) 241,714 (52.84) 16,860 (42.27) 110,142 (64.95) 45,458 (32.39) 351,856 (56.11) Total births: 2,523,146 (59.35)g
Number and proportion of Births those with less than High School Education as component group of total study populationh 9795 (9.79) 23,558 (5.17) 3505 (8.75) 8406 (4.94) 13,300 (9.49) 31,964 (5.11) Total births:--(20.00) i
 Medicaid Birthj 63,180 (62.88) 181,290 (39.62) 21,392 (53.52) 51,180 (30.22) 84,572 (60.22) 232,470 (37.08) Total births 1,715,957 (40.08) j
 WIC Utilization 65,434 (66.20) 202,041 (44.72) 19,779 (54.55) 52,869 (34.32) 85,213 (63.07) 254,910 (42.08) Total births: 2,432,006 (57.25) k
  1. aAll categoric variables were tested with chi-square and found to be significant at p < 0.00 level
  2. b source: reference [35]
  3. c source: reference [36]
  4. dU.S. data define teens as age 10–19
  5. e this represent ALL Hispanic White ethnicity mothers (except Cuban)
  6. f report cites 2004 data
  7. g source: reference [39]
  8. hFor age > 20 in WA and FL; unclear of definition related to age in cited material related to U.S. population
  9. i source: reference [40]
  10. j denominator = 4,280,854; source: reference [41]
  11. k infants in 2008 (up to their first birthday); source: reference [42]
  12. l Missing data: This analysis was limited to birth certificates with complete information on race/ethnicity, maternal county of residence, and timing of entry to PNC. For all individual level data missingness was less than 1.0% with the exception of payment source for delivery which was 0.51% in FL and 2.70% in WA (1.11% overall) and maternal WIC utilization which was missing 1.23% of the time in FL and 9.34% of the time in WA (overall missing = 3.48%)