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Table 3 Multivariable Analyses of Determinants of Maternal Mortality: North and South

From: Levels and determinants of maternal mortality in northern and southern Nigeria

VariableNorth (n = 32,629)
OR (95% CI)
South (n = 18,863)
OR (95% CI)
Community level
 Community wealth0.14 (0.06–0.33)0.38 (0.16–0.89)
Individual
 Age0.91 (0.89–0.92)0.90 (0.88–0.93)
 Social autonomy1.01 (0.95–1.08)1.06 (0.95–1.17)
 Domestic violence0.98 (0.94–1.03)1.04 (0.92–1.16)
Distance to facility
 Small problem11
 Big problem0.99 (0.84–1.17)0.84 (0.59–1.19)
Media exposure
 No exposure11
 Low exposure1.39 (1.18–1.63)1.43 (0.89–2.29)
 Medium exposure1.14 (0.84–1.55)1.51 (0.93–2.46)
 High exposure1.16 (0.55–2.46)1.54 (0.70–3.36)
Contraception type
 No method11
 Folk/traditional1.50 (0.73–3.08)1.75 (1.20–2.56)
 Modern1.44 (0.98–2.10)1.21 (0.84–1.77)
Education
 No education11
 Primary0.82 (0.64–1.05)1.02 (0.61–1.71)
 Secondary/higher0.53 (0.39–0.74)0.63 (0.36–1.11)
Religion
 Catholics11
 Other Christians1.07 (0.61–1.86)0.96 (0.61–1.49)
 Islam1.13 (0.62–2.06)0.99 (0.55–1.79)
 Traditionalist/Other1.19 (0.54–2.59)1.16 (0.42–3.24)
Ethnicity - North
 Fulani1
 Hausa0.82 (0.64–1.06)
 Kanuri/Beriberi1.04 (0.65–1.64)
 Tiv0.98 (0.53–1.79)
 Yoruba1.02 (0.52–1.99)
 Others0.99 (0.72–1.38)
Ethnicity - South
 Ekoi/Ibibio1
 Igbo1.03 (0.61–1.76)
 Ijaw/Izon1.20 (0.63–2.32)
 Yoruba0.69 (0.40–1.19)
 Others0.69 (0.39–1.19)
Type of residence
 Urban11
 Rural0.90 (0.69–1.16)0.68 (0.51–0.92)
Wealth index
 Poor11
 Middle1.11 (0.88–1.39)1.75 (1.04–2.94)
 Rich1.14 (0.84–1.54)1.56 (0.92–2.64)
Water quality
 Improved11.00
 Unimproved1.01 (0.84–1.20)1.14 (0.84–1.55)
Year
 200811
 20130.97 (0.82–1.15)0.90 (0.67–1.19)
  1. Bold: statistical significance p < 0.05
  2. Ethnicity: Two separate variables for ethnic composition were used for regional analyses