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Table 2 Bivariate Analyses of Determinants of Maternal Mortality - North and South

From: Levels and determinants of maternal mortality in northern and southern Nigeria

VariableNorth (n = 32,629)
OR (95% CI)
South (n = 18,863)
OR (95% CI)
Community level
 Community wealth0.17 (0.09–0.32)0.36 (0.19–0.68)
Individual
 Age0.91 (0.89–0.92)0.92 (0.90–0.94)
 Social autonomy0.92 (0.87–0.98)0.98 (0.89–1.07)
 Domestic violence1.02 (0.98–1.06)1.10 (1.02–1.20)
Distance to facility
 Small problem11
 Big problem1.01 (0.87–1.16)1.03 (0.78–1.34)
Media exposure
 No exposure11
 Low exposure1.18 (1.01–1.38)1.52 (1.04–2.23)
 Medium exposure0.93 (0.72–1.21)1.40 (0.96–2.04)
 High exposure0.61 (0.32–1.14)1.35 (0.75–2.43)
Contraception type
 No method11
 Folk/traditional0.82 (0.41–1.62)1.48 (1.06–2.06)
 Modern0.82 (0.58–1.15)1.05 (0.76–1.46)
Education
 No education11
 Primary0.83 (0.68–1.02)1.49 (0.99–2.25)
 Secondary/higher0.77 (0.63–0.95)1.47 (0.98–2.21)
Religion
 Catholics11
 Other Christians0.94 (0.63–1.39)0.90 (0.65–1.24)
 Islam1.35 (0.95–1.90)0.70 (0.46–1.08)
 Traditionalist/Other1.32 (0.74–2.35)0.88 (0.37–2.09)
Ethnicity - North
 Fulani1
 Hausa0.83 (0.66–1.05)
 Kanuri/Beriberi0.94 (0.62–1.42)
 Tiv0.82 (0.56–1.20)
 Yoruba0.40 (0.23–0.71)
 Others0.70 (0.54–0.90)
Ethnicity - South
 Ekoi/Ibibio1
 Igbo0.72 (0.46–1.11)
 Ijaw/Izon0.68 (0.38–1.22)
 Yoruba0.41 (0.26–0.65)
 Others0.48 (0.30–0.76)
Type of residence
 Urban11
 Rural1.05 (0.87–1.28)0.91 (0.72–1.15)
Wealth index
 Poor11
 Middle0.99 (0.82–1.22)1.32 (0.90–1.94)
 Rich0.80 (0.65–0.98)1.13 (0.81–1.56)
Water quality
 Improved11.00
 Unimproved1.07 (0.92–1.25)1.08 (0.84–1.39)
Year
 200411
 20110.99 (0.85–1.17)0.94 (0.74–1.19)
  1. Bold: statistical significance p < 0.05
  2. Ethnicity: Two separate variables for ethnic composition were used for regional analyses