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Table 2 Characteristics of cohort studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis (n = 10)

From: The effects of vigorous intensity exercise in the third trimester of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Subjects (n)   Exercise Control  
Author, year, country Total Int Con Recruitment GA (weeks) Mode Tri Frequency (times/week) Duration (min) Intensity Intensity MA outcomes reported
Bell, et al., 1995, Australia [35] 99 58 41 < 20 Any 3rd ≥3 ≥3 “working up a sweat, getting puffed and at least 50% MHR” No vigorous exercise prior to or during pregnancy BW, SGA
Collings, et al., 1983, United States [36] 20 12 8 2nd trimester Supervised cycle ergometer 3rd 3 40 65–70% VO2max No exercise BW, GWG
Magann, et al., 2002, United States [37] 455 238 217 < 20 Any 3rd ≥3 ≥3 60–80% MHR No exercise BW, SGA, GA at delivery, Prematurity, GWG
Hegaard, et al., 2010, Denmark [38] 4458 176 Light intensity, n = 2384, sedentary, n = 1998 16 Any 3rd Unable to evaluate ≥180 Moderate to heavy: “running, swimming, tennis, and competitive sports.” Light intensity: “light gardening, playing table tennis”; sedentary: “mostly sitting” BW, SGA
Sternfeld, et al., 1995, United States [39] 388 33 Moderate intensity, n = 53, light exercise, n = 55, sedentary, n = 242 < 20 Aerobic 3rd ≥3 ≥20 “Vigorous walking” (specific intensity not reported) Moderate intensity: aerobic, without vigorous intensity; light exercise: at least once per week but less than other groups; sedentary: no aerobic exercise BW
Rose, et al., 1991, United States [40] 21,342 1264 Light intensity, n = 2127, sedentary, n = 17,951 2nd Any 2nd Not specified Not specified ‘vigorous activity’ ‘light or moderate activity’ BW, SGA
Kuhrt, et al., 2018, United Kingdom [43] 787 206 581 Retrospective Running 3rd ≥1 n/a n/a No running GA at delivery, prematurity
Zeanah, et al., 1993, United States [44] 173 18 69 Retrospective Any 3rd ≥2 n/a ≥150 bpm Moderate intensity: 130–149 bpm; Light intensity: ≤129 bpm GWG, BW
Hall, et al., 1987, United States [41] 845 452 393 Not reported Supervised machine-based resistance training, and cycling 3rd 3 45 85% MHR No exercise BW, GA at delivery
McCowan, et al., 2010, International [42] 3513 41 3472 15 weeks Any 2nd Daily Not specified “Exercise leading to heaving breathing or being out of breath” Not specified SGA
  1. Int Intervention group, Con Control group, Tri Trimester, MA Meta-analysis, HRR Heart rate reserve, GWG Gestational weight gain, BW Birth weight, MHR Maximum heart rate; cardiorespiratory fitness, MVPA Moderate to vigorous physical activity, IR Insulin resistance; prematurity, SGA Small for gestational age, GA Gestational age